Children’s growth is a common concern to all health care providers treating neonates, infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents. Defining the best nutrition for healthy and active children as well as for those who suffer from acute or chronic disease, considering subgroups defined by age or other relevant determinants, is relevant to the child, his care givers, and to health care providers dealing with the pediatric age group. In the present Nutrition and Growth Yearbook, an international group of experts in nutrition, metabolism, gastroenterology, endocrinology, and auxology joined together to select for our readers some of the important manuscripts published between July 1, 2018, and June 30, 2019, dealing with issues related to children’s growth, especially those manuscripts that deal with the interaction between nutrition and growth.
Both human growth and the response to diet, for example, the absorption and metabolism
of certain nutrients, are modulated by genetic variation. Although rare monogenetic
causes of obesity have been identified, the results of genome-wide association
studies have demonstrated only relatively modest effects on human growth, body
mass, and obesity risk.
For term infants, the review addressed several issues. Five articles on infant formula
[1–5] are discussed. Three of them relate to the relationship between the composition/
consumption of infant formula and health outcomes later in life [1–3] ; 2 of them
review the evidence on the supplementation of beta-palmitate in infant formula 
and the role of hydrolyzed rice protein formulas in infant feeding  .
This chapter includes articles published in the area of nutrition and cognition from July
1, 2018, up to June 30, 2019. Pregnancy, infancy, and early childhood are crucial periods
for neurodevelopment and are influenced by several factors.
Children in resource-poor settings are prone to malnutrition resulting from a suboptimal
nutrition and various environmental hindrances. According to the 2019 joint
report of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank on levels and trends in child malnutrition,
we are far from a world free of malnutrition. Indeed, global rates remain alarmingly
This chapter of the Yearbook on Nutrition and Growth reviews major studies published
between July 2019 and June 2019 addressing the issue of the influence of maternal
nutrition during pregnancy on intrauterine fetal growth.
Globally, 149 million children are stunted (i.e., length-for-age Z score less than –2) and
the rate of decline has been unacceptably slow. The burden of this problem is in southern
Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where many communities remain impoverished.