Infographics help to translate information into an easier visual representation.

This section presents a series of infographics on nutritional articles and publications.

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1 topic

Growing evidence suggests that the maturation of the gut microbiome in the first years of life can influence a child's health and development. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are important modulators of early gut microbiome development, explaining in part the positive effect of breastfeeding on gut microbiome trajectories.

Latest results of a clinical trial show the beneficial effect of 5 specific HMOs on early gut microbiome trajectories and body growth through toddlerhood.

If you are interested in more results from this clinical trial on other parameters of gut development, please see the infographic on the link below.

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Healthy development of the gut microbiota after birth, as seen in breastfed and vaginally born infants, contributes to healthy growth and immediate and long-term health. However, birth by caesarean section, along with other external factors including antibiotic use, is a major disruptor of early gut microbiota development. Gut microbiota dysbiosis can in turn have a negative impact on the health of the infant. Early nutritional interventions for non-breastfed infants born by C-section offer a great potential for balancing the disrupted microbiome in early life.

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What we feed our children today determines their growth and development, influences their eating behaviour and habits, their lifelong health and future learning. Moreover, the way we produce, manufacture, distribute and consume food today puts a strain on the environment and natural resources. In fact, food is the most powerful lever for optimising human and planetary health. Given this crucial role of food, there is an urgent need to promote diets that not only support health and wellbeing, but also have a low impact on the environment. In 2019, the FAO/WHO set guiding principles for sustainable and healthy diets that also affect how we feed our children today and tomorrow. For more information, see the following infographic.

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Nutritional status from childhood through to early adulthood, periods of bone growth and development, have lasting effects on bone health status. Poor nutrition may compromise the achievement of peak bone mass thus causing an earlier bone loss in an individual. However, new breakthroughs are showing that the gut microbiome may be a potential way to reinforce nutrition, and in turn bone strength. Learn more about the gut-bone axis, its mechanism of action, and the possible opportunities it presents for improving bone strength in this infographic.

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Child nutrition has improved overall in recent decades. However, reductions in stunting and wasting have been offset by a rise in childhood obesity, making the diets of most children in most countries inadequate. Overlapping malnutrition issues are particularly prevalent in poorer communities. Climate change also threatens food security, therefore alongside changes in food systems and a multi-sectoral approach, early interventions are recommended. These include pushing for breastfeeding which has health benefits for the mother and child, and a shift to a plant-rich diet which not only contributes to proper nutrition but is also more sustainable.

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Delayed introduction of complementary feeding for high-allergenic foods does not reduce allergy risk, as evidenced by the LEAP, EAT and PETIT clinical trials. There has been a shift in recommendations from avoidance to controlled exposure which aids in the achievement of tolerance. It was found that early introduction of allergenic foods, between 4-6 months of age, was beneficial in high-risk infants.

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The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted food systems and healthcare provisions. But what has been the impact on child nutrition and how is this being addressed? Breastfeeding during SARS Cov-2 infection as well as COVID-19 vaccination of lactating women should be encouraged but was a challenge due to different limitations.