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Throughout human history it has been known that adequate nutrition is crucial for normal child growth, and this has become a common concern to all child health care givers since at least the 19th century. Yet, the precise mechanisms underpinning the interaction between nutrition and growth have not been fully clarified. It is important, yet challenging, to define the best nutrition for healthy and active children as well as for those who suffer from acute or chronic disease, considering varying needs of different age groups.

Human milk composition changes dynamically during lactation, whereas infant formula composition is relatively static. This may contribute to growth/metabolic differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic outcomes in healthy term infants fed sequential formulas with age-adapted protein concentrations from birth to 12 months, in comparison to breastfed infants.

Breastmilk is abundant in structurally diverse HMOs. Scientific evidence shows HMOs have different biological functions important for a healthy development in early life. New research presents 12-month follow-up data from a study evaluating infant and follow-up formula containing a blend of 5 different HMOs, designed to represent some of the major HMOs found in breastmilk.

In the first published clinical trial using an innovative device to measure glycemic response to different feeding regimens in healthy infants, reports a lower-protein follow-on formula with 100% lactose complemented with infant cereal with whole grain and pulses promoted lower glycemic response along with lower insulin demand and less insulin secretion, which may have beneficial long-term effects on metabolic health.

This randomized clinical trial (Registration: NCT03085134) assessed if an extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) supplemented with two human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) and reduced protein content (2.20 g/100 kcal) supports normal growth in infants with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA).

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) may support immune protection, partly via their action on the early-life gut microbiota. Exploratory findings of a randomized placebo- controlled trial associated 2′fucosyllactose (2′FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) formula feeding with reduced risk for reported bronchitis and lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTI), as well as changes in gut microbiota composition.