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New data suggests there is no association between prenatal vitamin D deficiency and offspring specific learning disorders, contrary to previous findings. Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated with unfavourable pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes, impaired offspring bone development, prematurity, and subsequent risk of delayed cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Paediatric experts have reviewed the nutritional constituents that have thus far been identified in human breast milk, along with their associated health benefits. Advanced analytical technologies such as next-generation sequencing have enabled unprecedented exploration of human breast milk and expanded research on its various health benefits.

Researchers have found a link between HMO composition resulting from genetic polymorphisms, and language development in infancy. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), the third most abundant solid component of human milk (HM), have been linked to a number of potential health benefits. In particular, both sialyllactose (SL) and 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL) have been implicated to benefit early cognitive development in preclinical studies.