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Research Highlights:
Breastfeeding women are found less likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) events including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and fatal CVD.
Previous research likewise showed that breastfeeding is associated with decreased risks of developing type 2 diabetes, breast and ovarian cancers.

The present review summarized the biogenesis and classification of hMOS, illustrated proposed mechanisms of action of hMOS at different stages of the SARS-CoV2 infection, and discussed challenges and opportunities for conducting research on hMOS for clinical applications against COVID-19.

New data suggests there is no association between prenatal vitamin D deficiency and offspring specific learning disorders, contrary to previous findings. Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated with unfavourable pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes, impaired offspring bone development, prematurity, and subsequent risk of delayed cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders.