Milk proteins without cows, Julia Keppler

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The use of alternative protein sources over animal proteins such as milk has been a continuing trend in response to animal welfare and sustainability concerns. Plant proteins like soy or pea can be alternatives, however their nutritional quality, physical functionality and sensory properties are not comparable to milk proteins. The use of precision fermentation, a process of obtaining animal-free milk proteins using genetically modified cells grown in a fermenter, can be a potential approach to obtain valuable food proteins. However, physical functionality of animal-free milk protein is not always identical to animal milk proteins due to minor changes in the amino acids sequence.