Professor Nowak-Wegrzyn discussed recent developments in the management of CMPA in infants, specifically relating to two key HMO: 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT). Prof Nowak-Wegrzyn highlighted the importance of the microbiome in the development of the infant’s immune system and described the results of recent clinical trials that demonstrated the safety and beneficial effects of formula supplemented with 2’-FL and LNnT in healthy infants and those with CMPA. Briefly, infants receiving formula supplemented with HMO had a lower incidence of respiratory tract and other infections and hence a reduction in exposure to medications, such as antibiotics and antipyretics