Mild Cognitive Impairment: when Nutrition helps Brain Energy Rescue

Editor(s): Prof Alfonso Cruz-Jentoft, MD. PhD, Prof Cornel Sieber, MD. PhD, Prof Russell H. Swerdlow, MD. PhD, Prof Stephen Cunnane PhD .

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. MCI is defined by an objective decline in cognitive functioning (using appropriate cognitive tests) that exceeds the expected level given the patient’s age and education. Such cognitive changes do not impair social functioning or activities of daily living.

Articles

Introduction

Author(s): Prof Alfonso J. Cruz-Jentoft

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. MCI is defined by an objective decline in cognitive functioning (using appropriate cognitive tests) that exceeds the expected level given the patient’s age and education. Such cognitive changes do not impair social functioning or activities of daily living.

 

Mild Cognitive Impairment: A silent and late detection disorder

Author(s): Prof. Cornel Sieber

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was first described some two decades ago to describe a usual clinical situation: older persons that significantly underperformed in cognitive tests but were functionally able to perform normally. This fact had been described for long and received many names (benign senescent forgetfulness, age associated memory impairment and many other).

Effect of ketones on brain metabolism: Role of MCTs

Author(s): Prof Russell H. Swerdlow

Brain energy metabolism declines with advancing age and to a greater extent in certain neurodegenerative diseases of aging. This reflects changes in mitochondrial function, and manifests as well as declining brain glucose utilization. Relevant changes are evident through direct analyses of mitochondria from the brains of aging individuals and those with Alzheimer’s disease and its frequent syndromic precursor, mild cognitive impairment. Biomarker tests such as fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography further demonstrate such changes.

 

Effect of an Oral Nutritional Supplement for improving brain energetics and cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment

Author(s): Prof. Stephen Cunnane

Brain glucose uptake is about 10% below normal in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and deteriorates further in Alzheimer disease (AD). It is now clear that in contrast to glucose, uptake of the brain’s main alternative fuel – ketones (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate) – remains normal in both MCI and mild-moderate AD. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that an endogenous or exogenous source of ketones can at least partially bypass brain glucose hypometabolism and improve brain energy metabolism in both MCI and mild-moderate AD. The key question now is whether improved brain energy metabolism also improves cognitive performance in MCI or AD.