The aim of the 93rd Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop is to map the challenges within the global landscape of childhood nutrition. The opening session outlined the key barriers faced in pediatric nutrition, from both the global and local perspectives. Understanding the specific nutrition deficits of a particular population is a first step in addressing the problem. In addition, we must also understand local feeding practices, in order to identify suitable interventions that can strike a balance between effectiveness and safety. The second session focused on the role of milk in early childhood. Despite of undisputable critical importance of breastfeeding, we still need to learn more of its composition and biological function The biggest challenges comes after the exclusive breastfeeding period when nutrition choice depends not only on the level of caregivers knowledge on appropriate for child age nutrition but also on the socio-economical, cultural and environmental factors. The final session took a step broader in order to identify the environmental influences of nutrition. Infection from unhygienic surroundings combined with inter-generational nutritional deficits are major forces that can shape the epigenome and the infant gut microbiome. Together, these aspects of the global landscape of nutrition provide a roadmap towards combating nutritional deficiencies in vulnerable children around the world.