Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery
Affolter M, Garcia-Rodenas CL, Vinyes-Pares G, Jenni R, Roggero I, Avanti-Nigro O, de Castro CA, Zhao A, Zhang Y, Wang P, Thakkar SK, Favre L
In addition to providing amino acids for growth, breast milk protein also has immunologically active molecules that confer passive immunity, stimulate antimicrobial defenses and promote immune maturation. The most abundant proteins in breast milk are lactoferrin, α-lactalbulmin, serum albumin and the β and κ casein fractions, which represent about 85% of total protein, while immune factors like IgA, IgM, IgG, TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 represent about 10%. Infants born by C-section had greater risk of developing immune-related diseases and this has been attributed to altered microbiota colonization, but altered immune factors in breast milk may also contribute. Therefore, this work assessed the main changes in breast milk proteins and assessed the impact of delivery by C-section in the MING study, a cross sectional study that took place in China.
Both, α-lactalbulmin and lactoferrin concentrations showed a temporal pattern and were higher at early stages of lactation, while serum albumin concentrations were constant across lactation. Casein was higher in the samples taken between 12 day and 2 months and decreased thereafter. Immune factors changed according to the stage of lactation: concentrations of IgA and IgM were higher in early milk and then rapidly decreased reaching a plateau by 1 month; and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 were higher at the beginning and then decreased. C-section did not seem to affect immune factors concentration.
Nutrients. 2016 Aug 17;8(8). pii: E504. doi: 10.3390/nu8080504.
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A new method for determination of gangliosides in human milk and their concentration across lactation
Longitudinal evolution of the concentration of gangliosides GM3 and GD3 in human milk
Giuffrida F, Elmelegy IM, Thakkar SK, Marmet C, Destaillats F
Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids formed by a ceramide and an oligosaccharide chain; they are distributed in most human tissues with the highest amount found in neural tissue, lung, spleen and gut. During early life dietary gangliosides may be have an important role on brain development, modification of the intestinal microflora and promotion of intestinal immunity. While their presence in human milk is known, quantitative data on their concentration is still scarce.
The diverse structures in the lipid moiety and in the oligosaccharide originate different gangliosides, and this work describes a validated procedure to quantify the two major classes: GD3 and GM3. Previously existing methods had either low sensitivity or were very time consuming limiting the amount of samples that could be analyzed. The method described in this paper uses liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometer and it has several advantages including: more selectiveness and robustness, allows the identification of molecular species of GD3 and GM3 and it is feasible to use in large sample sets.
The authors were able to provide the first report of longitudinal ganglioside concentrations in human milk. They analyzed a large cohort with samples at 0-11, 30, 60 and 120 days after birth. The content of GD3 and GM3 in human milk ranged between 0.9 to 3.8 µg/ml and 4.3 to 9.8 µg/ml, respectively. At the beginning of the lactation period (0-11 days) the amounts of GD3 and GM3 were comparable and the ratio GM3:GD3 was 1:1. Thereafter GM3 concentration increased and GD3 decreased, and the ratio GM3:GD3 was 10:1 at 60 and 120 days. Assuming a mean volume of breast milk consumption of 600, 700 and 800 ml, the estimated intake of ganglioside in infants is 5.5, 7.0 and 8.6 mg/d at 30, 60 and 120 d postpartum. Further investigations are needed to determine the biological function of gangliosides in milk.
Lipids. 2014;49(10):997-1004. doi: 10.1007/s11745-014-3943-2.
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A third of pregnant women have iron deficiency, putting them at increased risk of having a thyroid disorder and suffering complications such as miscarriages and preterm births, a new study suggests.
A new study in mice unveils the role of vitamin A in immune system regulation, a finding that could assist in developing treatments for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as well as vitamin A deficiency.
Discovery of a crucial immune reaction when solid food is introduced that prevents inflammatory disorders
Microbes colonize all body surfaces and help to balance the immune system. In newborn infants, gut microbiota is first conditioned by breast milk components. When solid food is introduced, gut microbiota develops and bacteria proliferate. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur and Inserm have discovered that a key immune response is generated in mice when solid food is introduced and microbiota expands. But, above all, they have shown that this immune reaction is essential as it is involved in educating the immune system and leads to low susceptibility to inflammatory disorders (allergies, colitis, autoimmune diseases, cancer) in adulthood.
Key message2’FL and LNnT are among the most studied HMOs with clinical evidence to support
immunity and the developing microbiome. Latest research on additional HMOs in human milk & beyond show promise in expanded benefits on gut, immune, brain and bone health.
AbstractBreast milk is recognized as the gold standard to provide the best nutrition to an infant from the start of life. It is well established that human milk influences the establishment of the gut microbiota, intestinal development and maturation of the gut mucosal and systemic immune systems. Among the bioactive components in breast milk modulating these processes are human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), with their composition, structure and function unique to human milk. Recent decades of human milk research and advances in glycobiology and technologies, made it possible to include some of the key HMOs in infant formulae. 2FL is the most studied HMO to date. 2FL and LNnT were assessed in a clinical study and demonstrated support for immune health by reducing antibiotic use and lowering respiratory tract illnesses, as well shifting gut microbiota towards that seen in breastfed infants in the first months of life(1,2). Another clinical study, performed recently has shown that higher levels of 2´FL in infant formula, as found in breast milk, is associated with a lower abundance of pathogenic bacteria such Clostridium diffcile and Klebsiella pneumonia at certain periods during early infancy(3).
Latest Nestlé research contributes to enrich the knowledge beyond 2’FL and LNnT to other members of the HMO’s families, including LNT, DFL, and two sialylated HMOs
3’SL and 6’SL, which shows expanded benefits on gut, immune health and new benefits on brain and bone health(4). Pre-clinical data indicate that these HMOs
may help to protect and support healthy development of a child during the critical first stages of life These findings warrant confirmation through a clinical study, which is currently ongoing. This clinical trial aims to evaluate in infants and toddlers the safety, growth and tolerance of a unique HMO complex added to infant formula, as well as its efficacy on the developing microbiome, immunity, brain and bone health.
1. Puccio G et al. Effects of Infant Formula with Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Growth and Morbidity: A Randomized Multicenter Trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64(4):624-31.
2. Berger B et al. Linking Human Milk Oligosaccharides, Infant Fecal Community Types, and Later Risk To Require Antibiotics. mBio, 2020;11:e03196-19. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.
3. Alliet P et al. Term infant formula supplemented with 2’fucosyllactose reduces the abundance of pathogenic bacteria during early infancy. Abstract accepted at the 6th WCPGHAN, June 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark.
4. Nestlé Research on Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Latest Update. Abstracts accepted at WCPGHAN Congress 2020 available at Nestlé Nutrition Institute website: www.nestlenutrition-institute.org