Nutrition Publication

NNIW10 - Weaning; Why, What And When?

Editor(s): A. Ballabriga, J. Rey. vol. 10

Related Articles

Development of Structure and Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Relevance for Weaning

Author(s): J. Schmitz, A.S. McNeish

In different countries and societies there is a variety of successful weaning practices.This empirical observation leads immediately to the conclusion that there isa range of practices—qualitative, quantitative, and temporal—within which infantscan thrive.

Energy Needs in the Weaning Period

Author(s): E.M.E. Poskitt

Weaning should not be an abrupt process with enforced abstinence of infantsfrom the breast and counter attractions in the form of solid foods. There is nothing,either nutritionally or emotionally, to recommend such a process. Sudden weaningby stopping other sources of milk is equally undesirable.

Adaptation of Renal Function from Birth to one Year

Author(s): J. Rodriguez-Soriano

It is well established that the functional capacity of the kidneys is lower innewborns and young infants than in children and adults. This concept, put forwardmany years ago by the pioneering work of Barnett (1) and McCance (2), has beenconsiderably expanded in recent years, owing to the application of more precisetechniques of renal physiology.

Potential Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Immunity

Author(s): A. Ferguson, S. Strobel

Against a complex and ever-changing background of stimulation by self and nonselfantigens, T lymphocytes have two main groups of functions—immunoregulatory,both for help and suppression, and effector.

Obesity and Atherosclerosis as Consequences of Early Weaning

Author(s): P. Hahn

I hope to demonstrate in this chapter that early pre- and postnatal nutrition andother factors have lasting effects on the further development of the individual.Finally, I shall marshall the meager evidence pertaining to humans to show thatpossibly the same, or at least similar, responses can be found in our species.

Hypertension as a Consequence of Early Weaning

Author(s): J. Boulton

The current concern that hypertension in adulthood might be initiated by earlyfeeding experience has its origins in the 1960s. By then the drift away from breastfeedinghad led to a parallel development in technological expertise for producingartificial milk formulae from cow's milk.

Actual Trends of the Diversification of Infant Feeding in Industrialized Countries in Europe

Author(s): A. Ballabriga, E. Schmidt

The way in which beikost is introduced to infants varies considerably in theaffluent European societies. The tendency, from the 1940s to the 1970s—coincidingwith an important decrease in the rate of breast-feeding in many countries—wasto introduce more and more early an alternative to milk.

Recent Trends in Weaning in the United States

Author(s): T.A. Anderson, E.E. Ziegler

The many remarkable changes in attitude of mothers in the United States regardingthe feeding of their infants have, during the past 50 years, provided fascinatingexamples of how rapidly folklore can be modified or abandoned in an affluentsociety.

Exclusive and Partial Breast-Feeding and Infant Development in Central Africa

Author(s): H.L. Vis, P. Hennart

Literature concerning the growth of breast-fed infants is abundant, but still itremains difficult to come to a definite conclusion. Several books and articles havebeen published about breast-feeding and infant growth (1-7).

Supplementary Infant Feeding in Developing Countries

Author(s): A. Ahmad

About 400 B.C. Hippocrates said, "The physician must know and must beargreat pains to know what man is in relation to food and drink and habits generallyand the relation of each to each individual."

Weaning Practices In Developing Countries

Author(s): B. Ajenifuja

The weaning period has always been looked at as a dangerous process in developingcountries, since strictly speaking this is the time when any food other thanbreast milk is introduced into the baby's diet. A normal child fed by a well-nourishedmother has all its nutrients and energy provided by breast milk for at least the first4 to 6 months of life.

Introduction of Weaning Foods in Tunisia

Author(s): B. Hamza

With regard to infant feeding practices, one can identify two distinct periodsduring the first year of life; one during which breast milk or a substitute is given,and a second one during which supplementary foods (solids but also liquid foodssuch as cow's milk) are given.