Annales 76.2 - Challenges and Opportunities during the Complementary Feeding Period

Editor(s): Carlos Lifschitz & Fred N. Were. 76.2

Complementary feeding describes the method(s) of infant feeding from 6 to 24 months of age when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient for the global needs of the child. In this issue of Annales Nestlé the topic of current complementary feeding (CF) practices is addressed. The articles include contemporary issues on of CF in developed countries, food fortification, over nutrition during CF period and issues beyond the realm of nutrition.


Complementary Feeding - Beyond Nutrition

Author(s): Fred N. Were, Carlos Lifschitz

The roles of the mature digestive system acquisition of some essential neurodevelopmental milestones are described in this article. The impact of progressive exposure of the infant to a variety of textures and tastes , administered in the approximate condition including timing and amounts, on the successful transition to the second year of life and incorporation of family foods is explored. The evidence on the role of parental education in avoiding common mistakes which are usually transient but that sometimes can lead to lengthier situations are more difficult to resolve is discussed.

Complementary Feeding in Developed Countries: The 3 Ws (When, What, and Why?)

Author(s): Cristina Campoy, Daniel Campos, Tomás Cerdó, Estefanía Diéguez, José Antionio García-Santos

This article on complementary feeding (CF) written by Dr. Campoy and colleagues, an authority group in the field, restates the importance of appropriate feeding strategies during the transition from breastfeeding towards normal family diet. CF is should meet nutritional requirements of infants, avoiding nutritional deficiencies or non optimal introduction of certain types of food and their subsequent negative effects on earlier and later health. Recommendations on the content, timing, and health outcomes of CF should be implemented through multicomponent approaches involving health care professionals, community, and parents and should emphasize broader aspects of  a healthy lifestyle for the infant.

Impact of Food Fortification on Child Growth and Development during Complementary Feeding

Author(s): David Omondi Okeyo

Micronutrients are noted as major fortifiers in common food vehicles. Fortification of commonly-used food vehicles such as milk, maize meal, porridge and vegetable oils provides opportunities for increasing nutrient intake during infancy. Even not being reported direct cause and effect relationships between fortification and growth, evidence of implied linkages had been demonstrated.

Overnutrition: Does Complementary Feeding Play a Role?

Author(s): Ahmed R. Laving, Syeda Ra'ana Hussain, Daisy O. Atieno

This article summarizes a review of systematic reviews and key articles that report the relationship between complementary feeding and childhood obesity. Early introduction of CF (before 4 months of life), high protein and energy content of feeds, and nonadherence to evidence-proven feeding guidelines have been found to be contributory to overweight and obesity later in life.