Nutrition Publication

Nutrition and Growth Yearbook 2014

Editor(s): B. Koletzko, R. Shamir, D. Turck, M. Phillip.

The relation between nutrition and growth in children is one of the key concerns of child health. The interaction between nutrition and growth poses a challenge to pediatricians, including subspecialists in pediatric nutrition, endocrinology and gastroenterology, pediatric nutritionists and dieticians, and other health professionals involved in the care of children. Thus, exchanging concepts and knowledge between the professionals of all the different disciplines is key to facilitating research and interdisciplinary clinical collaborations.The growing interest in the relationship between nutrition and growth gave rise to numerous articles in various medical journals.The main idea is to bring to practicing physicians succinct editorial comments, evaluating the clinical importance of each article and to discuss its application. The articles discussed in this book are those that have the most important potential contribution in the field. The studies might contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of interactions, the way of thinking, the existing concepts in the field or that may lead to a change in the way patietns are treated

Related Articles

Cognition

Author(s): H. Hull, S. Carlson

This chapter in the Yearbook on Nutrition and Growth summarizes the articles that have been published in the area of cognition and nutrition. Articles were included if published (including E-pub ahead of press) between the dates July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. All studies were human observational or clinical trials. The topics or nutrients explored in the articles naturally fell into one of three categories: feeding studies (breastfeeding and school feeding), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation (LCPUFA) and micronutrients (methyl donors and iodine, iron and vitamin A). Comments are included following the summaries of papers within each category.

Malnutrition and Catch-Up Growth during Childhood and Puberty

Author(s): Y. Jee, J. Baron, M. Phillip, Z. Bhutta

This chapter reviews important recent papers related to catch-up growth. Catch-up growth is generally defined as body growth that (1) is more rapid than normal for age and (2) follows a period of growth inhibition. As can be seen by the studies reviewed in this chapter, catch-up growth can occur after either pre- or postnatal growth inhibition, can show a variety of temporal patterns, and can be either complete (yielding a normal adult body size) or incomplete. These studies explore the implications of catchup growth not only for adult body size but also for pubertal timing, bone strength, and the risk of metabolic syndrome.

Neonatal and Infant Nutrition Breastfeeding

Author(s): D. Turck, J. van Goudoever

The period of infancy and young childhood is characterized by special needs in nutrition, which not only must maintain the body but also support a rapid rate of growth and the appropriate synthesis and deposition of body tissue. This growth leads to a doubling of the body weight at the age of 3–4 months and to a tripling at the age of 12 months. Moreover, the quantity and quality of nutrient supply during infancy and young childhood has been shown to be associated with long-term health effects, some of which being the consequences of ‘programming’ [1] . A special feature of young infancy is that one liquid food is the sole source of nutrition. Breast milk is the optimal food for all healthy infants and provides an adequate supply of nutrients to support a healthy growth and development (with the exception of vitamin K during the first weeks of life and of vitamin D), besides providing anti-infective protection and immunostimulatory components. Studies performed in affluent countries have shown important advantages of breastfeeding over formula feeding, such as lower incidence rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections and a lower risk of obesity. Breast milk is the model for the composition of infant formula taking into account that a breast milk substitute should not only imitate the composition of breast milk but also aim at achieving similar health effects [2] . This chapter of the Yearbook on Nutrition and Growth reviews the key articles that have appeared between 1 July 2012 and 30 June 2013 in the area of neonatal and infant nutrition, including breastfeeding. All studies were human observational or clinical trials. Comments are included following the summaries of papers. References used in the introduction and in the comments are listed at the end of the chapter. 

Nutrition and Growth in Chronic Diseases

Author(s): C. Hartman, M. Altowati, S. Faisal Ahmed, R. Shamir

Both acute and chronic diseases can affect nutritional status and growth. Acute disease exerts reversible effects on rate of weight gain whereas chronic disease may result in changes in weight and height gain with potential long-lasting effects including poor response to disease treatment and reduced final adult height. Nutritional support is needed in many different clinical conditions ranging from children with anorexia associated with acute infectious disease to malnourished children with chronic disease. Administration of appropriate nutritional support is conditioned by the understanding of the multiple changes that take place in dietary intake, metabolic rate and changes in physical activity. Proper nutritional support should both prevent weight loss in the short term and promote appropriate growth in the long term. Chronic disease may also affect pubertal progress which in turn may have led to a number of effects including poor growth. This chapter presents a selection of last year’s publications that focused  on the nutritional support and growth in several of the most common chronic diseases of children.

Obesity Metabolic Syndrome and Nutrition

Author(s): T. Battelino, S. Shalitin

Over the span of the last decades there has been an alarming worldwide increase in childhood obesity [1] , which tends to track into adulthood [2] . Childhood obesity is associated with a significant risk for the development of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and is also a risk factor for early cardiovascular events. The timing of the obesity epidemic is parallel to the increased availability of calorie-dense foods and a more sedentary lifestyle – the ‘obesogenic environment’ [3] . However, not all individuals become obese while living in the same environment.Therefore, variability among individuals is suspected to result from heritability of obesity susceptibility genes that interact with components in the ‘obesogenic environment’ to promote positive energy balance responsible for weight gain [4] . Recent evidence, primarily from animal studies and observational data in humans, suggests that the epigenome can be altered by maternal diet during the periconceptionalperiod and that these programming events may underlie later disease risk. In one of the works cited below it was demonstrated that the priconceptual micronutrients altered  methylation at the differentially methylated regions of imprinted genes associated with obesity. These results may support the concept that nutrition in critical periods of life can permanently influence the development of chronic diseases. The ‘obesogenic environment’ is a complex of contributing factors that influence the dietary choice, physical activity, or metabolism responsible for maintaining energy balance. Both sedentary behavior and reduced physical activity promote the overconsumption of dietary macronutrients, particularly fats and refined carbohydrates [5] . It is widely accepted that high-fat diets, characterized by enhanced palatability and high-energy density, may be primarily responsible for the current obesity epidemic.Also, increased consumption of carbohydrates, particularly refined carbohydrates and sugar-sweetened beverages, can contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity [6] . The dietary pattern, food frequency, and breakfast consumption may also have an impact on body weight and on markers of the metabolic syndrome. Finally, the connection between gut microbiota, energy homeostasis, and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders are emerging as a new break for intervention. Although current childhood obesity intervention programs have traditionally focused only on generalized population guidelines, further investigation and insight into gene-diet interactions may serve an important role in both the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity by using targeted nutritional and drug therapies. This chapter reviews a selection of important articles published between July 2012 and June 2013 focusing on the relation between nutrition, obesity and metabolic syndrome in the pediatric age group. 

Pregnancy Impact of Maternal Nutrition on Intrauterine Fetal Growth

Author(s): Y. Yogev, L. Hiersch

This chapter of the Yearbook on Nutrition and Growth reviews important articles published between July 2012 and July 2013 concerning the impact of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on intrauterine fetal growth. Along with human studies, several animal studies dealing with the effect of nutrition on the placenta are also included since this field is not sufficiently studied in humans. Finally, we included future studies that hopefully will help in understanding the goals and interventional options for healthier offspring.