It is well established that human milk influences the establishment of the gut microbiota, intestinal development and maturation of the gut mucosal and systemic immune systems. Among the bioactive components in breast milk modulating these processes are human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), with their composition, structure and function unique to human milk. Recent decades of human milk research and advances in glycobiology and technologies, made it possible to include some of the key HMOs in infant formulae. 2’FL and LNnT are among the most studied HMOs with clinical evidence to support immunity and the developing microbiome. Latest research on additional HMOs in human milk & beyond show promise in expanded benefits on gut, immune, brain and bone health.