Nestle Research has been investigating human milk (HM) since 1960s. Nestlé Research human milk initiative called LIFE (Lactation for Infant Feeding Expertise) is one of the biggest efforts on characterization of HM and association of its components to infant and maternal variables. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant component of human milk excluding water. Its concentration ranges from 5 to 15 g/L in mothers’ milk and has implications in wide-ranging health outcomes of the new-born. Nestlé Research data from 8 cohorts executed in 15 countries and employing approximately 3,600 human milk samples indicate that maternal genetics, BMI, stage of lactation, preterm birth and mode of delivery are important drivers of oligosaccharide concentration in mothers’ milk.