HMOs are abundant in human milk, with variety and quantity largely superior to what is found in farm animals milk. The function of Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) are probably multiple, but one of the better understood role is to beneficially shape infant gut microbiome. Nestle Research has extensive research program on HMOs and microbiome. For example, the research starts to reveal how maternal factors such as diet influence HMO composition in human milk, and, via gut microbiome, effect on infant health. HMOs are now available, and clinical trials with HMO show encouraging results.