Almost 300 million children under-5 years are anaemic worldwide. Iron deficiency has traditionally been considered to account for half of these cases. International policy makers recommend universal distribution of iron-based interventions – either iron supplements or iron containing multiple micronutrient powders to alleviate the burden of anaemia in young children. More recent analyses indicate that the burden of anaemia attributable to iron deficiency is less than originally anticipated. Sant-Rayn Pasricha details in his presentation the available and not so clear evidence, for both benefits and harms from iron in infants.