NNIW03 - Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids in Enteral Nutrition

Editor(s): P. Fürst, V. Young. Clinical Nutrition vol. 03


Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids in Enteral Nutrition

Author(s): P. Fürst, V.R. Young

Growth in the young and maintenance in the adult are complex, geneticallyorchestrated, metabolic processes that require adequate intakes of substrates andspecific cofactors.

Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids in Enteral Nutrition: Overview and Some Research Challenges

Author(s): V.R. Young, Y-M Yu, S. Borgonha

The importance of adequate nutritional support as a component in the comprehensiveclinical management of patients is now widely appreciated, and overthe past two decades advances have been made in enteral feeding techniques.

Role of the Gut in the Amino Acid Economy of the Host

Author(s): P.J. Reeds, D.G. Burrin, B.Stoll, J.B. Van Goudoever

The intestinal tissues, especially the small intestinal mucosa, have a highrate of protein synthesis and energy expenditure. Because a substantial proportionof mucosal protein synthesis is probably devoted to secretion into thelumen, the intestine is in a permanent state of positive protein balance.

Regulation of Splanchnic Protein Synthesis oy Enteral Feeding

Author(s): P. Tessari

the adult organism, maintenance of body protein stores is accomplishedthrough a diurnal rhythm of catabolic and anabolic phases [1]. Under physiologicalconditions, a net loss of body proteins occurs in the interprandial periods,particularly during the night, as well as during exercise [2].

Mechanisms of Peptide and Amino Acid Transport and Their Regulation

Author(s): G.K. Grimble

The history of research into mammalian peptide transport has, until recently,been one of frustration as the main features, but not the detail, of a transportprocess that had first been suggested over 100 years ago were apparent by1975 [1].

Nitrogen Trafficking and Recycling through the Human Bowel

Author(s): A.A. Jackson

Normal adults maintain nitrogen balance over long periods, and during growthin childhood there is modest positive nitrogen balance. Nitrogen is consumedmainly as protein in the diet, and is made available to metabolism as amino acids,following digestion and absorption.

Physicochemical Considerations of Protein Utilization

Author(s): P.A. Finot

Protein nutrition has so far been mainly focused on the amino acid compositionof the dietary proteins necessary to meet the body’s requirements.The problem of their bioavailability and stability during processing and storagehas been the principal concern of the food industry.

The ‘Fast’ and ‘Slow’ Protein Concept

Author(s): B. Beaufrère, M. Dangin, Y. Boirie

Several factors are known to regulate postprandial protein deposition. Somedepend on nutrients other than proteins (energy intake, for example), othersdepend on the pathophysiological condition (aging, stress, and so on), and somedepend on the dietary protein itself.

Postprandial Protein Utilization: Implications for Clinical Nutrition

Author(s): D.J. Millward

The importance of enteral nutrition, especially for critically ill patients, is nowwidely recognized. There are clear benefits compared with parenteral nutritionin terms of reduced septic morbidity resulting from preservation of gut barrierfunction, not to mention reduced costs.

Catabolic States and Immune Dysfunction: Relation to Gastrointestinal Feeding

Author(s): K.A. Kudsk

Critical injury and illness induce a number of metabolic, immunologic, andfunctional responses which influence clinical outcome and normal defenses. Raisedlevels of counterregulatory hormones, immobilization, respiratory failure, andviolation of host defenses with intravenous catheters and endotracheal intubationalter the balance between the bacterial assault and immunologic host defenses.

Cysteine and Glutathione in Catabolic States

Author(s): D. Breuille, C. Obled

For many years there has been a focus on indispensable (essential) aminoacids in both enteral and parenteral nutrition. These are considered to be those thebody cannot synthesize because it lacks the necessary enzymes.

Conditionally Indispensable Amino Acids (Glutamine, Cyst(E)Ine, Tyrosine, Arginine, Ornithine, Taurine) in Enteral Feeding and the Dipeptide Concept

Author(s): P. Fürst

There is a long list of so called essential and conditionally indispensablenutritional substrates, mostly old or old but newly packaged. Certain aminoacids, short-chain fatty acids, nucleotides and so on have been known to beessential for a very long time.

Tolerance and Utilization of Enteral Nitrogen

Author(s): U.G. Kyle, P. Jolliet, L. Genton, C. Pichard

In humans, the gastrointestinal tract has evolved to absorb whole proteins. Inabnormal states, nutritional support in the form of particles smaller than proteinsize compensates for abnormalities in the intestinal mucosa and for pancreaticinsufficiency.

Role of Enteral Nutrition in The Pathophysiology and Treatment of Pancreatitis and Cystic Fibrosis

Author(s): S.D. Freedman

Multiple factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis[1]. Alcohol is the cause in 60–70% of patients. Dietary factors such ashigh protein or either very high or very low fat content may potentiate the injuriouseffects of alcohol [2, 3].

Nutrition in Renal Failure – The Role of Enteral Feeding

Author(s): J. Bergström

Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with advanced renal failure,regardless of the cause of reduced renal function and the underlying kidneydisease.

Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids: Which and When?

Author(s): D.B.A. Silk

The normal daily ingestion of dietary protein is usually in the region of70–100 g but, in addition, endogenous proteins are secreted into the gut lumenwhich require assimilation.

Closing Remarks

Author(s): P. Fürst; V. Young

This is going to be very brief. Thank you all for attending. I deeply appreciateyour participation. The free flow of ideas that were characteristic of this workshopwill, I believe, have a cytokine-induced cascade response for the expansion of ourknowledge of inflammatory bowel disease.