NNIW45 - Nutrition Immunity And Infectious Diseases In Children

Editor(s): K. Tontisirin and R. Suskind. vol. 45


The Malnourished Child an Overview

Author(s): R.M. Suskind, L. Lewinter-Suskind, K.K. Murthy, D. Suskind, D. Suskind, D. Liu

Global Burden of Malnutrition and Infection in Childhood

Author(s): K. Tontisirin, L. Bhattacharjee

Malnutrition and infection play a major role in causing the preventable deaths anddisabilities that occur in much of the developing world, especially among young children.

Nutrition, Immunity, and Infectious Diseases in Infants and Children

Author(s): G.T. Keusch

In 1959, Scrimshaw et al. published a landmark review of the interactions of nutritionand infection, including a critical evaluation of the vast literature from both animaland human studies (1).

A Review of the Immune System Methodology tor Evaluating the Impact of Nutrition on Its Function

Author(s): R.U. Sorensen, B. Butler, L.E. Leiva

Clinical immunology has undergone impressive changes over the past decades, significantlyincreasing our ability to recognize immunologic abnormalities and permittingbetter diagnoses and treatment of many immunologic abnormalities.

The Molecular and Immunologic Evaluation of Nutritionally At-Risk Hosts

Author(s): J. Powell, S.H. Yoshida, J. Van de Water, M.E. Gershwin

Without proper nutrition, the immune system would be deprived of the componentsand mechanisms that are needed to generate an effective immune response. Some immunologicvariables are often used as measures of the status of the immune systemand its responsiveness to antigenic challenges, including leukocyte number and mobility,oxidant balance, protein activity, antibody production, and interleukin release.

The Effect of Protein-Energy Malnutrition on Immune Competence

Author(s): B. Woodward

The most common relationship between protein-energy malnutrition and infection isthe synergism expressed in the concept of the malnutrition-infection cycle.

Low Birthweight Infants, Infection, and Immunity

Author(s): A. Ashworth

In this chapter, I will examine whether infants of low birthweight (LBW) are moresusceptible to infection and to death from infection, than infants of adequate birthweight(ABW), and briefly compare their immunocompetence.

The Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids on The Immune Response and Susceptibility Toinfection

Author(s): P.C. Calder

All mammals can synthesize fatty acids de novo from acetyl coenzyme A. The endproduct of the fatty acid synthetase enzyme is palmitic acid (16:0), which can beelongated to stearic acid (18:0).

Stress, Nutrition, and The Immune Response

Author(s): J.S. Kennedy

This chapter highlights the effects of stress on host immunity to disease and reviewsthe new insights gained over the past few years on the potential therapeutic role ofnutrition in altering stress-related disease processes.

Iron-Zinc, Immune Responses, and Infection

Author(s): R.K. Chandra

Micronutrients, the immune system and resistance to infection form a veritable trinity.Each one influences the others. Although the influence of diet on risk of infectiousdisease has been known for centuries, it is only in the last 25 years that the importanceof impaired immune responses as an intermediate risk factor has beendocumented (1,2)

The Effect of Vitamin Deficiencies (E and A) and Supplementation on Infection and Immune Response

Author(s): S.N. Meydani, W.W. Fawzi, S.N. Han

Nutritional deficiencies contribute to the high incidence of morbidity and mortalityfrom infectious diseases among children in developing countries. Infectious diseases(respiratory and diarrheal) are among the leading causes of death in children aroundthe world.

Eating Disorders (Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa), Immunity, and Infection

Author(s): A. Marcos, A. Montero, S. Lopez-Varela, G. Morande

Obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa are significant public health concernsaffecting a large section of the population; they are even considered to be epidemics.These disorders have a common problem—the failure to maintain a desirable weight.

Allergy and Infection

Author(s): R.U. Sorensen, M.C. Porch

It is well established that some infections and parasitic diseases predispose patientsto allergic sensitization and trigger allergic reactions, whereas allergic inflammationpredisposes them to skin and mucosal infections.

The Metabolic Effects of Infection on Nutritional Status

Author(s): C.R. Fjeld

Stunted growth in many children from developing countries is caused by the synergisticeffects of infection or inflammation and malnutrition. As has been shown manytimes over, children's growth can be impeded through the effects of infection on intake,metabolism, and partitioning of nutrients.

Anorexia And Cytokines in the Acute Phase Response to Infection

Author(s): M.J.G. Farthing, A.B. Ballinger

The cardinal clinical features of systemic infection are fever, anorexia, myalgia, andlethargy sometimes leading to sleep.

Relations Between Gastrointestinal Infections and Childhood Malnutrition

Author(s): K.H. Brown

More than 90% of the world's children live in low income countries, where infectiousdiseases are the predominant cause of the increased rates of childhood mortality andmorbidity that are typical of these settings (1).

The Interaction of Acute Respiratory Infections, Measles, and Nutritional Status

Author(s): H.M. Coovadia, A. Coutsoudis

In a longitudinal health and nutrition survey of 3,000 children (birth to 2 years of age)conducted in the Philippines, length and morbidity data were collected bimonthlyover a 2-year period (1).

Nutrition and Infection: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Tuberculosis, and Melioidosis

Author(s): G.E. Griffin, D. Macallan

Endotoxin infusion into weanling rats causes a classic acute phase response characterizedby profound anorexia, acute weight loss, negative protein balance in skeletalmuscle, and the appearance of acute phase proteins, produced by the liver, in the circulation(1).

Malnutrition And Hiv Infection

Author(s): Wafaie W. Fawzi and Eduardo Villamor

Malnutrition and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually overlapin adults and children. The probability of HIV infection among malnourishedchildren is much higher than in the general population.

The Interactions of Nutritional Status and Parasitic Diseases

Author(s): D. Wakelin

Parasites—protozoans and helminths—are responsible for some of the most commoninfections of humans and are particularly prevalent in the wanner countries of theworld.

Concluding Discussion the Future Perspectives and the Next 10 Years

Author(s): R.M. Suskind, K. Tontisirin

The dynamic interactions between nutrition, immunity, and infection in infants andchildhood have profound implications on the nutritional well-being of children,which is a major concern to all health professionals.