NNIW37 - Feeding from Toddlers to Adolescence

Editor(s): A. Ballabriga. vol. 37


Lipids in Childhood Nutrition: Importance of Fats in Food Composition

Author(s): A. Ballabriga

Fats are soluble compounds in organic solvents, with limited solubility in water;triglycerides comprise the greater part of natural fats. Each triglyceride moleculeconsists of three fatty acids esterified to one molecule of glycerol. The basic componentof all lipids is the fatty acid chain, with different chain lengths and differentdegrees of saturation.

Longitudinal Study of Energy Needs: An Appraisal of Revised Estimates for the Dietary Energy Needs of Children Through to Adolescence

Author(s): R.G. Whitehead, A.A. Paul

Although this review is concerned with how opinions about the dietary energyneeds of children and adolescents have changed during recent years and the waythese relate to lifestyle modifications within the industrial world and among the moreaffluent parts of the population of Third World countries, it is instructive to look atwhat has been happening to family diets as a whole.

Carbohydrates in Feeding from Toddlers to Adolescence

Author(s): M.J. Lentze

The feeding of carbohydrates in human life starts in all mammals with simple sugarssuch as disaccharides, e.g., lactose and some oligosaccharides present in mammalianmilk.

Peak Bone Mass, Calcium, and Protein Intakes

Author(s): J-P. Bonjour

Peak bone mass can be defined as the amount of bony tissue present at the endof skeletal maturation (1). This biological variable is an important determinant ofosteoporotic fracture risk because the mass of bony tissue present at any time duringadult life is simply the difference between the amount achieved at maturity and thatlost with aging (2,3)-

Trace Elements in Children and Adolescents

Author(s): F. Haschke, C. Male

Essential trace elements must be present in the organism at a certain concentrationin order to maintain life and growth. Thus, every essential trace element has itsspecial range of tissue concentrations that allow adequate maintenance of physiologicand biochemical functions.

Dietary Habits of Preschool and School- Aged Children: Health Risks and Strategies for Intervention

Author(s): R. Tojo, R. Leis, D. Recarey, P. Pavon

The revolution in children's lifestyles and dietary habits which has occurred overthe last 25 years can be largely attributed to changes in the family environment andin the social environment in general.

Dietary Habits in Adolescence: Contribution of Snacking

Author(s): C. Cavadini

Nutrition plays a key role during adolescence, which is a period of tremendouschanges. From a somatic point of view, it is a period of fast growth, often with highphysical activity, with sexual maturation, including menstrual losses and sometimespregnancy for girls, requiring an important amount of energy and nutrients.

Antigen Recognition and Processing by the Intestinal Mucosa: Immune Consequences of Eating

Author(s): G.J. Russell, R.E. Kleinman

The gastrointestinal tract is uniquely adapted to facilitate the digestion and absorptionof essential nutrients, the diffusion of water, and the prevention of penetrationby potential pathogens.

Fiber in Childhood Nutrition

Author(s): M. Giovannini, C. Agostoni, R. Bellu, E. Riva

The health benefits conferred by the early, habitual inclusion of fiber in the dietextend beyond childhood and adolescence to affect the future health of the adult.

Diet and Antioxidant / Oxidant Systems

Author(s): B. Halliwell

Free radicals and antioxidants are widely discussed in clinical and nutritional reportsand even in the lay press. The assumption is that free radicals are bad andantioxidants good.

The Nutritional Role of Soft Drinks During Childhood and Adolescence

Author(s): P.R. Guesry

Years ago, children were drinking milk in Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon countrieswhereas in Latin countries, they were drinking either plain water or water mixedwith a small amount of wine, cider, or syrup.

Dietary Changes, Nutrition, and Health in Australian Aborigines and Other Transitional Societies

Author(s): M. Gracey

Today there are more deaths from cardiovascular diseases in the developing world than inthe developed countries. After the age of 5, there are as many deaths from cardiovasculardiseases as from infectious and parasitic diseases put together (1).

Diet and Growth in Young Vegetarians

Author(s): M. Van Dusseldorp, P.C. Dagnelie, W.A. Van Staveren

The popularity of vegetarianism has increased greatly over the past few yearsbecause of concern about the environment, animal welfare, and healthy eating. Froma historical point of view, the pursuit of vegetarianism for reasons of physical healthis a recent phenomenon.

Eating Disorders: Nutritional Aspects

Author(s): M. Bueno, A. Sarrfa, L.A. Moreno, F.J. Ramos

Eating disorders occur mainly in female adolescents. The principal disorders areanorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and overeating and obesity, the latter being thecommonest.

Nutrition and Physical Exercise in Young Athletes

Author(s): J-F. Duhamel, D. Bougie, J-Y. Guincestre, M. Laurans, A. Duhamel

The development of sports and sports medicine is one of the most striking trendsof our society (1). Increasingly, people practicing sports are children or teenagerswho have the greatest risk of being fed upon, and suffering from, unbalanced diets(2).

Diets, Electrolytes, and Hypertension in Childhood

Author(s): A.B. Gruskin, B.A. Atiyeh, L. Fleischmann, S. Dabbagh

Hypertension, a pathophysiologic expression common to a large group of diseases,is neither organ-specific nor identified with a specific disease. Almost 50 millionadult Americans are reported to be hypertensive.

Nutritional Problems in Tropical Populations and Their Control

Author(s): F.E. Viteri

Tropical populations constitute the majority of the "developing world," which wasbasically colonial in nature; it is mostly politically unstable, corrupt, and immature;it is fundamentally poor (economically disadvantaged); it is principally agricultural;it has unfavorable trade balances; and it is plagued by huge differences in wealth andhuman power within social classes.

Conclusions: Proposed Areas of Research During the Next Decade

Author(s): A. Ballabriga

Dr. Ballabriga: I am interested in the development of the central nervous system in marasmicchildren. I should like to see studies defining the role of subclinical essential fatty aciddeficiency, especially with relation to the ratio of different families of fatty acids and compositionof the diet.