NNIW34 - Intestinal Immunology and Food Allergy

Editor(s): A. De Weck, H. Sampson. vol. 34


Nonintestinal Manifestations of Food Hypersensitivity

Author(s): H.A. Sampson

Various extraintestinal symptoms have been ascribed to adverse food reactions.In this chapter, only food hypersensitivity reactions are addressed (Table 1).

Ontogeny of the Mucosal Immune System

Author(s): P. Brandtzaeg

Contrary to most animal species, the human fetus acquires maternal immunoglobulinG (IgG) via the placenta (1) and probably to some extent from swallowed amnioticfluid via Fc-y receptors expressed by fetal enterocytes (2).

Uptake and Transport of Macromolecules by the Intestine

Author(s): I.R. Sanderson, W.A. Walker

The intestine is routinely exposed to a limitless variety of macromolecules derivedfrom many sources, including resident bacteria, ingested food, invading viruses, etc.

Nerve-Mast Cell Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Author(s): J. Bienenstock

It is my intent in this chapter to clarify the role of the nervous system in theregulation and control of a variety of factors that are important in allergic manifestationsin the gastrointestinal tract.

Physicochemical Characteristics of Food Allergens

Author(s): R.C. Aalberse

A compilation of food allergens can be found in several reviews (e.g., see ref. 1).Such a list, of course, is of interest from both a diagnostic and a dietary point ofview.

Intestinal Manifestations of Food Hypersensitivity

Author(s): M.N. Marsh

There is a growing awareness among the public regarding what is termed "foodallergy" and a perception that a variety of distressing physical or psychological problemsand disabilities may be caused by food, methods of food production (agriculturaland industrial), and addition of substances used in promoting animal growth or topreserve and stabilize processed raw supplies, beverages, drinks, and even domestictap water.

Evaluation of Intestinal Permeability in Food Hypersensitivity Disorders

Author(s): C. Dupont

The analysis of the intestinal mucosa usually requires intestinal biopsies of theproximal small intestine.

Predictors of Risks for Allergy

Author(s): J. Bousquet , F-B. Michel

Atopic diseases are important causes of morbidity throughout the world. The severityof allergic diseases should not be underestimated and their prevalence is increasing.

Food Challenges in the Diagnosis of Food Hypersensitivity

Author(s): S.A. Bock

The goal of this chapter is to review the methodology to be used in the evaluationof complaints of adverse reactions to foods in order to confirm or refute the reportedsymptoms.

Role of Adverse Food Reactions in Infantile Colic

Author(s): D.J. Hill , C.S. Hosking

Fussing and crying, especially in the evening, are normal developmental phenomenain infants in the first 3 months of life (1). It is claimed that unexplained paroxysmsof irritability, fussing, or crying that persist for more than 3 hours per day, for morethan 3 days in one week (2), represent a separate clinical condition termed colic (3).

Development of Oral Tolerance

Author(s): S. Strobel

Oral (food) tolerance" usually describes a clinical situation that is not necessarilysynonymous with the immunological definition of "tolerance," that is, as observedduring development, transplantation or neonatal tolerance. In the context of thischapter, "oral tolerance" is defined as an antigen-specific immunological hyporesponsivenessafter prior enteral administration.

Induction of Oral Tolerance

Author(s): S. Husby, J. Mestecky, Z. Moldoveanu, C.O. Elson

Oral immunologic tolerance or oral tolerance may be described as a state of systemicunresponsiveness to parenteral immunization that is induced by prior antigenfeeding (1).

Induction of Systemic Tolerance by Tolerogens

Author(s): Y. Borel, R. Fritsche

Immunologic tolerance may be defined as a state of antigen-specific unresponsivenessinduced by preexposure to an antigen. If the antigen is an allergen, theimmune response is defined as allergy, an adverse reaction with an immunologicbasis mediated by IgE immunoglobulin (1).

Dietary Restrictions During Pregnancy

Author(s): K. Falth-Magnusson

Manipulation of the maternal diet during the pregnancy period or during both pregnancyand lactation has been suggested as one way to protect the child from thedevelopment of allergic disease.

Breast-Feeding and Dietary Avoidance

Author(s): R.S. Zeiger

The formidable increase in prevalence and morbidity of atopic disease, includingpossibly food allergy, that is occurring throughout the world demands identificationof actions that promote allergy prevention.

Alimentary Allergy Prevention In Infants With Familial Increased Allergic Risk: The Effect Of Different Feeding Regimens In The First 6 Months On Atopic Manifestations During The First Year Of Life

Author(s): E. Schmidt, J. Eden-Köhler, F Tonkaboni, J. Tölle

Atopic diseases play a major role in the morbidity of the developed industrialcountries. The most susceptible members of the population are children. About 20%to 30% of the children below the age of 15 years are affected by one or more of thetypical atopic diseases such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, atopicdermatitis, and/or food allergy (1-6).

Masked Food Allergens

Author(s): D.A. Moneret-Vautrin

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent food allergy is involved in a number of diverseclinical conditions (1,2). Diagnosis is carried out in two steps.

Effects Of Brief Early Exposure To Partially Hydrolyzed And Whole Cow'S Milk Proteins

Author(s): Jacques Schmitz, B. Digeon, tC. Chastang, D. Dupouy, B. Leroux, *P. Robillard, and S. Strobel

The first weeks of life seem to be a critical period for the development of allergicmanifestations to food antigens and particularly to cow's milk proteins. Indeed, ithas been shown that in infants with cow's milk allergy supplements of cow's milkformula are given significantly more often in the first 4 weeks than in control infantswithout cow's milk allergy (1).

Effect of Hydrolyzed Whey Protein Formula for Babies on Development of Allergic Symptoms During Infancy

Author(s): Y. Iikura, K. Akimoto, M. Ebisawa, T. Onda, A. Akazawa, H. Saito, T. Kimura, K. Ishizawa, N. Koya

Recent statistics show a dramatic increase in the number of patients with allergicdisease in the advanced nations of the world. Even Izuoshima Island in Japan, whichhas no environmental pollution, has been shown to have increased childhood asthma,allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis rates (1).

Effect of Hydrolyzed Whey Protein Formula for Mothers on Infant Ige Development

Author(s): Y. Iikura, K. Akimoto, M. Ebisawa, T.Onda, A. Akazawa, T.Katsunuma, Y. Terashima, T. Onda, N. Komuro, M. Kitagawa, S.Sekino, Ha. Ito, N. Tsutsumi, N. Koya

One of the recent problems of industrialized societies is an increasing incidenceof allergy. It has been estimated that one out of four Japanese people has somesort of allergic symptoms.

Role of Hydrolysates in Prophylactic and Therapeutic Diets for Food Allergy

Author(s): U. Wahn

Food allergy is frequently associated with other atopic manifestations during infancyand early childhood. Proteins of hen's egg and cow's milk represent the mostcommon clinically relevant allergens.