Mild Cognitive Impairment. From assessment to innovative interventions
Cognitive function declines with ageing. When this decline begins to be more pronounced, mild cognitive impairment occurs.
MCI is a transitional stage between the cognitive decline of normal aging and dementia. It is a condition in which individuals show evidence of impairment in one or more cognitive domains, typically including memory, and they do not interfere with the capacity for independence in everyday activities and are not better explained by another mental disorder. The prevalence of MCI is estimated to range from 12-21% for individuals aged 60+. This could be an underestimate due to underdiagnoses. Some patients (or family members) fear a diagnosis of dementia and its consequences and are therefore reluctant to mention issues relating to their memory or other cognitive or behavioral complaints. While MCI can lead to Alzheimer’s disease (50% of cases within 5 years), it can also be reversible (20 %).
This publication, intended for healthcare professionals only, begins with a description of the concept of MCI, from its historical evolution through to the current diagnostic criteria and intervention. Due to there is currently no formal pharmacological treatment for MCI, the last chapter is dedicated to show the results of the recent developments (BENEFIC Study) such as ketogenic-oral nutritional supplements that improve brain energy status and cerebral blood flow, thus improving patient's cognitive performance.