NNIW54 - Micronutrient Deficiencies in the Weaning Period and the First Years of Life

Editor(s): J. Pettifor, S. Zlotkin. vol. 54


Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies on Immune Function

Author(s): R.D. Semba

Micronutrients such as vitamin A and zinc play a major role in immunityto infectious diseases during the weaning period and the first years of life.In the last two decades, clinical trials have shown that vitamin A or zincsupplementation reduces morbidity and mortality from infectious diseasesamong infants and children in developing countries [1, 2

Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies on Bone Growth and Mineralization

Author(s): B. Specker

The first 2 years of life are a period of significant bone growth and mineralization.Garn [1] was one of the first researchers who eloquently describedearly bone growth based on over 25,000 radiographs of the metacarpals.

Impact of Infections on Micronutrient Deficiencies in Developing Countries

Author(s): Z.A. Bhutta

Despite numerous advances and improvements in child health globally,malnutrition still remains a major problem [1, 2]. A large proportion of casesof malnutrition occur in South Asia [3], which also harbors almost three quartersof the global burden of low birth weight infants [4].

The Economic Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies

Author(s): S. Horton

Micronutrient deficiencies have significant adverse consequences on keyaspects of body functioning, such as on immune systems and hence resistanceto infection, on hearing, cognition, endurance and peak work capacity.

Role for Micronutrient Interactions in the Epidemiology of Micronutrient Deficiencies: Interactions of Iron, Iodine and Vitamin A

Author(s): R.F. Hurrell, S.Y. Hess

Iron, iodine and vitamin A are the most common micronutrient deficienciesand affect one third or more of the world’s population.

The Epidemiology of Vitamin D and Calcium Deficiency

Author(s): J.M. Pettifor

At the time of weaning, the infant’s food and nutrient intake changesradically from that derived from breast-milk to that derived from complementaryfoods.

Stable Isotope Methods in Micronutrient Research

Author(s): S.A. Abrams

We will consider specific examples of three areas in which mineral stableisotopes are used, and then discuss the issues regarding increasing the use ofstable isotope-based research.

Interactions Between Micronutrients: Synergies and Antagonisms

Author(s): B. Lönnerdal

There is growing awareness that the micronutrient status of large segmentsof populations is inadequate and causing adverse effects on infants andchildren.

Micronutrient Malnutrition and Poverty

Author(s): M.W. Bloem, S. De Pee

In September 2000, the world’s leaders adopted the UN MillenniumDeclaration committing their nations to stronger global efforts to reducepoverty, improve health and promote peace, human rights and environmentalsustainability [1].

Epidemiology of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Developing and Developed Countries, Specifically Zinc, Copper, Selenium and Iodine

Author(s): C. Castillo-Durana, M. Ruz

Trace mineral deficiencies in humans were first studied in relation toiodine deficiency and thyroid function, and iron deficiency and anemia.

Influence of Food Intake, Composition and Bioavailability on Micronutrient Deficiencies of Infants During the Weaning Period and the First Year of Life

Author(s): R.S. Gibson, C. Hotz, L.A. Perlas

In recent years, the promotion of breast-feeding has received muchattention. This emphasis, however, has overshadowed efforts in many developingcountries to provide safe and nutritionally adequate complementaryfoods for infants and young children, and this critical aspect of young childfeeding has been severely neglected.

Impact Of Micronutrient Deficiencies On Behavior And Development

Author(s): Betsy Lozoff and Maureen M. Black

variety of micronutrients affect infant behavior and development [for arecent review see, 1]. Here we focus on deficiencies of iron or zinc, which areamong the most common single nutrients disorders in the world.

Practical Considerations for Improving Micronutrient Status in the First Two Years of Life

Author(s): I. Parvanta, J. Knowles

Six- to 24-month-old children are at especially high risk for micronutrientdeficiencies due to their rapid rate of growth and their ability to consume onlysmall amounts of food at any one time.

Specific Strategies to Address Micronutrient Deficiencies in the Young Child: Targeted Fortification

Author(s): L.M. Neufeld, U. Ramakrishnan

Micronutrient deficiency during early childhood may be related to a seriesof factors including inadequate stores accumulated during the fetal period,low intake from maternal breast milk, early abandonment of breast-feeding,increased losses due to infections and inadequate micronutrient intake fromcomplementary foods (foods taken in addition to breast milk from 6 monthsuntil the child eats from the family diet, 24 months).

Specific Strategies to Address Micronutrient Deficiencies in the Young Child: Supplementation and Home Fortification

Author(s): S. Zlotkin, M. Tondeur

Iron deficiency results from an imbalance between iron uptake, ironutilization and iron loss [1].