HMOs: A window of opportunity or a weapon in strengthening immunity

Editor(s): Lars Bode, Sagar Thakkar, Ryan Carvalho, Carine Blanchard, Yvan Vandenplas.



The science of HMOs: What they are and what they do

Author(s): Prof. Lars Bode

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a group of complex carbohydrates that are highly
abundant in human milk and contribute to shaping the infant’s gut microbiome and immune system for immediate and long-term health benefits.


Lactation for Infant Feeding Expertise (LIFE) – Focus on HMOs

Author(s): Dr. Sagar Thakkar

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant component of human milk excluding water. Its concentration ranges from 5 to 15 g/L in mothers’ milk and has implications in wide-ranging health outcomes of the new-born.


Learnings from the last decade of clinical evidence on HMOs

Author(s): Prof. Ryan Carvalho

2’FL and LNnT are among the most studied HMOs with clinical evidence to support
immunity and the developing microbiome. Latest research on additional HMOs in human milk & beyond show promise in expanded benefits on gut, immune, brain and bone health.


HMOs and allergic sensitization: current evidence

Author(s): Dr. Carine Blanchard

Currently there is scientific evidence linking HMOs and more particularly 2 FL and LNnT
with the prevention of allergic sensitization. The results both from preclinical and clinical
observational data, from the LIFE Child Cohort, demonstrates a positive effect of 2FL and
LNnT in reduction of allergic sensitization.


HMOs boost the immune system

Author(s): Prof. Yvan Vandenplas

HMOs stimulate the development of a bifidogenic microbiome, which is boosting
a maturation of the immune system into a balanced TH1/TH2 development resulting
in a reduced risk of allergic disease.