NNIW04 - Cancer and Nutrition Prevention and Treatment

Editor(s): J. Mason, G. Nitenberg. Clinical Nutrition vol. 04


Cancer and Nutrition: Prevention and Treatment

Author(s): F. Haschke

Cancer, which has long been the second most common cause of mortality inindustrialized nations, is assuming an even more prominent role as the rate ofcardiovascular disease continues to decline.

Nutritional Modulation of the Carcinogenesis Process: Targets and Examples

Author(s): S.D. Hursting

The ultimate goal of carcinogenesis research is to achieve an understanding ofthe processes involved in the induction of human cancer to an extent that willallow intervention to prevent the disease,

Epidemiology o Nutrition and Lung Cancer

Author(s): R.A. Goldbohm, L.E. Voorrips

In what was originally considered the Western world, lung cancer is among themost frequently occurring cancers, particularly in men. In the period 1988–1992,the incidence in men ranged from 99 per 100,000 per year in US Blacks to 24 per100,000 per year in Sweden [1].

Antioxidants and Lung Cancer Prevention

Author(s): X-D. Wang, R.M. Russell

Worldwide, tobacco use causes an estimated 3 million deaths per year, and thisnumber is expected to rise to 10 million deaths annually by 2020. Tobacco smokingand exposure to environmental (second-hand) tobacco smoke are the mostimportant risk factors for lung cancer.

Prostate Cancer: Epidemiology and Prevention

Author(s): D. Albanes

Cancer of the prostate gland is the most common malignancy in men inEurope, North America, and Australia, and its relative incidence is increasingelsewhere. Little is definitively known regarding the etiology of this disease, however.

Nutrition and Colon Cancer Prevention

Author(s): R.M. Bostick

Cancer of the colon and rectum is the second most common cause of cancermortality in Westernized countries [1]. Incidence rates vary approximately 20-fold around the world.

The Mechanisms by Which Folate Depletion Enhances Colorectal Carcinogenesis: A Unified Scheme

Author(s): J.B. Mason, S-W. Choi

Recent reviews in the epidemiologic literature have demonstrated the remarkablyconsistent association between the low consumption of fruit and vegetablesand the incidence of cancer [1, 2].

Nutrition and Breast Cancer: Epidemiology and Mechanisms

Author(s): J.L. Freudenheim

Approximately 790,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in the worldeach year [1]. Breast cancer is the third leading cancer worldwide. Rates of breastcancer are generally higher in industrialized countries; these countries account forclose to 60% of cases diagnosed each year.

The European Prospective investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: Perspectives for Cancer Prevention

Author(s): E. Riboli

Epidemiological and experimental laboratory studies on nutrition and cancerhave provided strong evidence that diet, as well as other related variables such asbody mass and physical activity, can influence the risk of developing differenttypes of cancer.

Catabolism of Skeletal Muscle Proteins and Its Reversal in Cancer Cachexia

Author(s): M.J. Tisdale

Cancer of the pancreas, stomach, lung and colon often leads to a pronouncedwasting of body tissues which, if left unchecked, will eventually lead to the deathof the patient.

New Mediators in Cancer Cachexia

Author(s): J.M. Argilés, F.J. Lopez-Soriano

Approximately two thirds of patients who die with advanced cancer sufferfrom cancer cachexia. Indeed, the degree of cachexia is inversely correlated withthe survival time of the patient and it always implies a poor prognosis. This syndromeis characterized by marked weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia [1].

Animal Models for Nutrition in Cancer

Author(s): V.E. Baracos, T. Le Bricon

Selection of a model is central to the design of an animal study of carcinogenesisand cancer progression or metastasis. Cancer-associated malnutrition and itsdietary therapy in animals is the subject of literature which is marked by the lackof a consensus approach to the use of models and dietary design.

Bidirectional Interplay of Nutrition and Chemotherapy

Author(s): F.D. Ottery

Globally, the majority of patients diagnosed with cancer present for treatmentin a palliative rather than a curative therapy setting. This is true whether addressingcancer in the poorest country or the richest.

Nutrition in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Author(s): P. Lenssen

Recent estimates of the annual number of hematopoietic stem cell transplants(HSCTs) performed worldwide exceed 50,000 with the annual rate of increase at10,000 transplants.

Nutritional Support of Patients during Radiotherapy

Author(s): R. Fietkau

Nutrition is a viable function. 20–50% of all tumor patients present with reducednutritional status before any therapy starts. Nevertheless mostly aggressivemultimodal therapy is necessary,

Nutrition in Oncological Surgery

Author(s): L. Gianotti, O. Gentilini, M. Braga

Protein-energy malnutrition is commonly associated with cancer. About 50%of tumor-bearing patients present with various degrees of weight loss (WL) at thetime of diagnosis.

Is Immune Nutrition the Holy Grail for Cancer Patients?

Author(s): G. Nitenberg, P. Dechelotte

The limited benefit, if any, of standard parenteral (PN) or enteral nutrition(EN) in cancer patients has led to the concept that the quantity of nutrients maynot be the only issue, and that qualitative modulation of nutritional substratescould restore the nutritional and immunological status of the host, without enhancingtumor growth.

Nutritional Support in Pediatric Cancer Patients

Author(s): M. Roulet, N. Bianchi, A. Garcia Aristizabal, M. Nenadov-Beck

Cancer is the second most common cause of death after accidents in children.The types of malignancies are very different from those in adults. The most prevalentcancers are leukemia and lymphoma, brain tumor, soft-tissue sarcoma, neuroblastoma,Wilm’s tumor, and bone cancer.

Workshop on What Constitutes an Optimal Biomarker in Cancer Trials

Author(s): J.B. Mason, G. Nitenberg

The process of conducting clinical cancer trials, particularly those dealing with nutritionalchemoprevention, is an extremely difficult one from a logistic perspective. The ideal endpointof such a study is the appearance of cancer. Nevertheless, using such an endpoint israther difficult and often impossible for several reasons.