Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Developmental Programming
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects an estimated 14% of pregnancies worldwide. It is now clear that children born to mothers with GDM have an increased lifetime risk of metabolic diseases compared to unexposed children. Other long-term adverse consequences in the offspring include cardiovascular abnormalities, dysregulation of glucose metabolism, increased risk of allergic/respiratory disease, and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Together, these findings highlight the importance of the intra-uterine environment as a driver of epigenetic changes in the offspring.