The importance of early nutrition for long-term health is becoming increasingly impressive. Nutrition is a decisive factor for growth and development, it influences the risk of life-threatening diseases and possible late damage. The situation of premature babies in particular reveals this connection like a magnifying glass. Latest research findings in this sensitive area provide indications of what measures could also be useful for mature babies. Following the discussions about protein, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have moved into the focus of science. After all, they appear to play a significant role in the positive effects of breast milk. The possibilities of supplementation with selected HMOs are still in their infancy, but the first results open up far-reaching perspectives for the future, while at the same time raising new questions.