The use of biomarkers in the monitoring and management of liver disease is evolving. The growing burden of liver disease, coupled with a late manifestation of symptoms, provide impetus for biomarker research in hepatology. In this presentation, Dhawan summarizes recent advances in the identification of biomarkers for liver disease. Disease progression typically involves liver cell injury (often associated with cell death), varying degrees of inflammation, steatosis, oxidative stress and eventually fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inflammation, cell death and fibrosis are the three major processes that determine the outcome of liver disease. Nevertheless, it appears that the quest for non-invasive biomarkers that are reliable, specific and easy-to-use is ongoing.