Adolescents in Canada and the United States (US) are generally physically healthy. Recent decades have seen continuous improvements in the rates of survival from childhood illnesses, including cystic fibrosis, haemophilia and congenital heart disease Nevertheless, there remains significant morbidity among adolescents in these countries. As such, transitional issues from paediatric to adult health care should be addressed.. This presentation outlines the challenges adolescents face. These include educational and nutritional challenges. Housing and racism issues are also discussed. Dr Kaufman briefly speaks about the rates of suicide among adolescents with mental health issues, as well as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered youths. Alcohol and substance abuse also impact adolescent health both on the short and long term. Adolescents represent a significant proportion of newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients in both countries. In essence, this presentation overviews the health issues facing adolescents in Canada and the US.