Chemical methods for determining concentrations of vitamin K in milk
and other body fluids have been developed and improved during the past
10 to 15 years.
Vitamin Ki was measured in human milk samples from 43 mothers at 1
month after delivery by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
using a fluorescent detector.
Maternal diet and nutritional status are considered to be among the most
important environmental factors influencing the course and outcome of pregnancy.
The changes that occur in a woman's body during pregnancy may be
compared to a revolution.
The determination of individual requirements of essential nutrients in
healthy persons is a time-consuming and difficult process.
In a collective prospective epidemiological study on 13,643 pregnancies
from 1963 to 1975, an attempt was made to explore all accessible factors of
possible influence on the course of pregnancy and child development.
In cattle, owing to the type of placentation, the transfer of immunoglobulins
and other substances from dam to calf via colostrum is of the utmost
importance to the health of the newborn.
For some time we have been studying the nutritional status of the Spanish
population, particularly that of some vulnerable groups, such as pregnant
women and newborns.
There are many ways of determining the requirements for a particular
During the past nine years, several investigations have been carried out
to evaluate the amount of vitamin E in the nutrition of newborns and infants
during early life.
It is well known that in infancy the requirements for vitamins are relatively
high and that infants are also more likely to be at risk of vitamin deficiency
The supplies of essential as well as some nonessential trace elements in
infants during their first 3 months after birth have been examined in a prospective
Assessment of vitamin status in humans by biochemical methods is based
on four different basic principles
Although the assessment of human vitamin E status has, from a clinical
standpoint, generally relied on serum or plasma tocopherol concentrations,
this study deals with erythrocyte [red blood cell (RBC)] tocopherol
Pediatricians are only too well aware of the clinical and theoretical implications
of avitaminosis in children, especially in infants.
Thiamine status was assessed in the blood and cord blood of 43 primigravidas
attending Ramathibodi Hospital at 6 to 12 hr before delivery (day
0) and at days 2, 4, and 42 after delivery.
The scope of this review is restricted to the evaluation of the calcium,
phosphorus, iron, and zinc status during pregnancy and lactation.
Among the many maternal and environmental factors influencing fetal
growth and development, diet and nutritional status occupy an important
In a longitudinal study on nutritional profiles and their relation to pregnancy
outcome, we examined two particular aspects.
We report some preliminary results of a longitudinal study on the nutritional
status of pregnant and lactating women and newborns.
The only period of life in which daily iron requirements per unit of bodyweight
attain magnitudes approaching those of pregnancy is from the sixth
to the twelfth month of infancy.
Folates are a heat-labile, light-sensitive group of compounds present in
Calcium represents the major building block of the mineralized phase of
Aluminum (Al) is considered a toxic trace element. In 1985, Freundlich
et al. (1) expressed concern that Al may accumulate in the brain of young
infants with renal insufficiency.
Pregnant mothers living in the Ankara-f ubuk district were followed
from the third month of pregnancy to 6 months after delivery between 1983
Rickets is by definition a disorder of growing bones. The disease is characterized by disturbances in calcium and/or phosphorus homeostasis.
We recently completed a study on the influence of extra phosphorus (P)
and calcium (Ca) on 40 very low birthweight (VLBW) infants below 1.5 kg.
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA) results from the posttranslational
carboxylation of glutamic acid.
Up to 30% of pregnant women have been reported to suffer from leg
cramps, usually during the night or early hours (1,2).
We studied the relation of the vitamin D status between mothers and their
breast-fed infants by measuring serum and milk 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25-
Although the cause of prematurity is often difficult to ascertain, many
conditions can predispose the pregnant woman to preterm labor.
The Welsh Rhymney Valley, which has a homogeneous society with many
diverse medical problems, shows a high incidence in small-for-dates (SFD)
Concern over nutrition in industrial countries stems predominantly from
problems associated with excessive intake.
In the early 1980s, two studies (1,2) suggested that a reduction in the prevalence at birth of neural tube defects could be achieved in mothers given
periconceptional multivitamin and/or folic acid supplementation.
Serum folate levels in early pregnancy in 32 women whose pregnancies
resulted in babies affected by neural tube defects (NTD) (anencephalus and
spina bifida) were compared with values from a random sample of 395 women
with normal pregnancies acting as controls.
Plasma vitamin levels in newborn babies are low compared with older
infants, children, and adults (1-3).
Vitamin E as an antioxidant might be of potential benefit for the small
premature baby in countering hemolysis, retrolental fibroplasia, and bronchopulmonary
In the 1950s, I undertook a study of the fragility of the small vessels of
the skin in premature infants and its possible association with the incidence
of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).
Iodine is an essential trace element, the only confirmed role of which is
the synthesis of thyroid hormones (1).
Certain elements are found in animal tissues and fluids in very small
The determination of the nutritional requirements of the developing fetus
and the newborn is a very complex problem, given that the optimum rate
of growth has not been established with certainty.
An increasing trend toward prolonged breast-feeding has been observed
in many industrialized countries.
Ongoing studies by the Dunn Nutrition Laboratory in a rural farming region
of The Gambia in West Africa have included measurements of vitamin
status and the effects of vitamin (and food) supplements in deficiency, especially
on pregnant and lactating women and their infants.
Controversy exists over the precise requirement for trace elements in
preterm infants (1). Serum copper and zinc levels were measured in 26 babies
of <30 weeks gestational age (mean 27.8 ± 1.9 weeks) at postnatal ages of
11 to 111 days (median, 49 days).
In 1974 the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a multinational
study on breast-feeding following recommendations made earlier by the Thirteenth
International Congress of Paediatrics.
Austria was among those countries having the highest depositions of radioactive
materials following the Chernobyl disaster on April 26,1986. Doses
from ingestion arise mainly from 1311,134Cs, and 137Cs.
Zinc deficiency is clearly teratogenic in animals (1). The catabolism of
maternal tissues during pregnancy, however, seems to protect the fetus from
the teratogenic effects of hypozincemia (2).
Glutathione peroxidase is a selenium-based enzyme, the main function of
which is the catalysis of chemical reactions that detoxify peroxides and
prevent damage to cell membranes.
It was inevitable that the resurgence of breast-feeding in recent years
should result in more attention being focused on breast milk itself.
Duplicate 24-hr dietary composites were collected from 26 lactating vegetarian
women living in villages surrounding Kathmandu, Nepal and were
analyzed for both total vitamin B6 content and vitamin B6 glycoside content
by a modified microbiological growth assay.
Optimal nutritional management of preterm (PT) infants, particularly those
less than 1,500 g birthweight, is believed to be critical to their growth, survival,
and ultimate well-being;
High-protein feeding of newborns frequently produces transient elevations
of tyrosin in plasma.
A zinc balance study was conducted on low-birthweight infants (670-2,430
g) fed human breast milk (the mother's or pooled) or formula (group 1, n =
17) and others fed in the same manner but with zinc supplementation (group
2, n = 19).
To evaluate the vitamin C nutritional status of premature infants, vitamin
C concentrations were measured in seven neonates born before 32 weeks
gestation and in 13 premature infants born at or after 32 weeks.
Thirty infants with birthweights below 1,500 g who required total parenteral
nutrition (TPN) from birth were given one of two regimens differing
only in their phosphate content.
Despite increasing interest in vitamin Ki, very few analytical techniques
have been described for this substance.
Plasma vitamin Ki and PIVKA-II (prothrombin induced by vitamin K
absence), were measured simultaneously in three groups of infants
We developed a mass-monitoring system for noncarboxylated prothrombin,
which is a precursor of active prothrombin and converted to the active
form by vitamin K and carboxylase, as an indicator of vitamin K deficiency
in infants around 1 month of age.
Breast milk is best for infant feeding; however, the vitamin Ki content of
human milk is less than one-tenth that of formula milk (1).
Using high-performance liquid hematography for determination of serum
vitamin Ki concentration, we carried out a series of investigations to determine
some factors involved in possible vitamin K deficiency in the newborn
Fetal iron is highly dependent on bodyweight (1). Total body iron, primarily
in blood hemoglobin and tissue, increases linearly with bodyweight.
It has recently been suggested that infant formulas containing high concentrations
of iron may reduce zinc bioavailability (1).
Clinical observations from the nineteenth century and early twentieth indicated
that children with keratomalacia were severely vitamin A deficient,
ill, malnourished, and suffered an extremely high mortality (1,2).
Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and Vitamin A deficiency are still
major nutritional problems in Indonesia. A national survey on xerophthalmia
(1976-1979) showed that the prevalence of Bitot's spots was 1% and xerosis
The nutritional concerns for women in pregnancy and lactation involve
the supply of a range of nutrients adequate to meet the mother's health
requirements and ensure the normal development of the child.
Dr. Olson's statements, especially on those concerning the side effects
attributed to vitamin C, require comment, since some are based on unverified,
even anecdotal, reports.
"The determination of nutritional requirements during pregnancy and
nursing is a complex task because the optimum growth rate of the fetus and
of the newborn baby is not known for sure."
folic acid deficiency, 68
and nutrition, 27-28
folic acid and, 151
vitamin C and, 151-156,161
and selenium, 269-270
and zinc, 267-268
Alkaline phosphatase, and rickets,