Dietary lipids can provide as much as 40% of the daily caloric intake in the
Western diet. The daily dietary intake of lipid by humans in the Western world
ranges between 60 and 100 g (1,2).
There is considerable evidence from cell culture and perfusion studies that the
liver and the small intestine are the major sites of production of plasma lipoproteins.
The energetic performance of the heart is quite remarkable; in humans, for example,
the heart is capable of pumping about 8,000 liters of blood per day, in
about 80,000 pulsations.
There is general agreement in the literature that infant formulas containing
cow's milk fat as the sole or principal form of fat are less well digested by the
preterm infant than those containing vegetable oils or medium-chain triglycerides
A major function of lipids in modern nutrition is to serve as a substrate for production
of metabolic energy. Mechanisms regulating the production of metabolic
energy under a wide variety of physiological conditions are required for survival
of the species.
Certain polyunsaturated fatty acids can be metabolized by oxygenation into a
large family of biologically active substances, the so-called prostanoids or eicosanoids.
Nutrition of the infant is of paramount importance for at least two main reasons:
(a) there is a fast rate of growth and tissue development; (b) organ specific phases
of development take place, which are likely to be determinants of subsequent performance.
The essential fatty acids (EFAs) are a group of naturally occurring unsaturated
fatty acids with a chain length of 18, 20, or 22 carbon atoms and containing between
two and six methylene-interrupted double bonds in cis-configuration.
Geriatric medicine is more likely to be aimed at optimizing the function of different
organs and systems such as the cardiovascular system than to extension of
the duration of life.
Vitamin A deficiency is still one of the major causes of blindness in the world.
Vitamin A deficiency affects epithelial structures in a variety of organs, the eye
being the most obvious example.
Retinoids are a class of compounds consisting of natural and synthetic substances
structurally related to vitamin A. Vitamin A, or retinol, is essential for
general growth, differentiation of epithelial tissues, visual function, and reproduction.
It has been more than 60 years since vitamin E was discovered, yet, there is
still uncertainty among scientists and certainly among the public as to precisely
what its biochemical functions are and what the health benefits of the vitamin may
Degeneration of cholinergic neurons and decreases in cholinergic function occur
in several clinical syndromes. In tardive dyskinesia, senile dementia of the Alzheimer
type (SDAT), Huntington's disease, myasthenia gravis, and even in the
normal process of growing old, more or less specific cholinergic deficits have been
Enteral nutrition consists of infusing a nutritive mixture in the gastrointestinal
tract (usually in the stomach or in the jejunum). Parenteral nutrition consists of
the direct administration of nutritive solutions in the blood stream, generally after
catheterization of a central vein.
The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of animal and human tissues consist of
three families, derived from linoleic, linolenic, or oleic acids. In each family, the
metabolism proceeds via steps of 6-desaturation, elongation to C20, 5-desaturation,
elongation to C22, and 4-desaturation.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are ranking first as cause of death in the industrialized
countries. The prevalence of CVD and, more specifically, of coronary
heart disease (CHD) is on the rise in the developing countries as well.
The amount and type of fat in the diet have clearly been shown to influence the
development of tumors in experimental animals (1-3).
Obesity is often associated with increased plasma concentration of free fatty
acids (FFA) (1) and insulin (2) as well as a decreased glucose tolerance (3). The
elevated plasma insulin concentration in the obese patients induces a reduced rate
of FFA production per kilogram of adipose tissue when compared to the nonobese
Dietary fats have commonly been evaluated in terms of calorie sources, essential
fatty acid sources, and their effect on serum lipid levels. High serum lipid levels
are usually considered a primary risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis
in the coronary arteries (1-3).
of cholesterol, 3,4,5
enterocyte and, 2-3
factors influencing, 68-69
in infants, 68-69
of LCT, 68
of lipids, 1-5,68
of MCT, 48,68-69
of sterols, 5
of vitamin E, 124-125
Lipid oxidation reactions in foods occur mainly during storage of dehydrated
products containing unsaturated fatty acids. These include cereal products (1), potato
products (2,3), milk products (4), and meat (5), poultry (6), and fish products
(7). They also occur in fats used for frying (8).