Both maternal undernutrition and obesity
are huge public health problems
associated with adverse outcomes.
It is estimated that close to 27% of
all births in low- and middle-income
countries may be small for gestational
age and associated with maternal malnutrition.
Maternal obesity is associated with
a high risk of adverse maternal outcomes
and an excess risk of macrosomic
babies, birth asphyxia or trauma
and newborn mortality.
Micronutrient deficiencies remain a
significant global health challenge. Deficiencies may not only have adverse
effects on the quality of people’s lives
but may also result in significant developmental
and social consequences.
Reducing micronutrient defi ciencies
through effective policies and targeted
nutrition intervention strategies
can bring significant health benefits for
people, thus positively impacting their
Iron supplementation/fortification will
prevent iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in many infants who
need iron, but infants with adequate
iron status provided iron may be at risk
for adverse outcomes.