Shortly after birth, the intestine of the human neonate becomes rapidly colonized
with microorganisms that interact with a large, highly active mucosal surface.
The mammalian intestinal tract contains a complex and diverse population of
both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria.
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been defined as the involuntary passage of
gastric contents into the esophagus; GER disease (GERD) occurs when refluxate
produces symptoms. Dietary changes represent a milestone in conservative
therapy, that is the only treatment option in infants with uncomplicated GER
and must be associated with pharmacological therapy in GERD.
Allergic reactions to cow's milk proteins are among the earliest atopic manifestations,
with onset during the first months of life in a majority of cases. They are
often associated with atopic dermatitis and until some years ago, controversy
existed as to whether the link between these two atopic phenotypes was incidental