In recent decades, there has been a widening of goals of child health care. They are no longer restric-ted to reducing child and infant mortality in a given area; now, they should also include the promotion of normal growth and development so that the child matures into a healthy adult. Physical growth has thus, two main implications in paediatric practice; it is a health care objective: the promotion of normal growth and development; but it is also a health indicator: a valuable instrument for monitoring the health and well-being of the child.
The notion of renal immaturity in newborns and infants can be supported by two undeniable facts, namely: 1) the development of nephrons is completed in human beings only in the 36th week of pregnancy and 2) the parameters of renal function: Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), the reabsorption of sodium, the urinary concentration and acidification capacities are quantitatively lower than in adults even when other factors such as body surface area, weight, etc are taken into account.
Fermented milk products have been consumed for centuries, as a way to preserve dairy and cereal products. At the turn of the century, the Russian scientist Eli Metchnikoff suggested that the consumption of live microbes in fermented milk product might explain the longevity of certain ethnic groups in Eastern Europe.