Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, are now among the commonest disorders affecting Western populations. The dramatic increase in allergic sensitisation over the last 20-30 years, indicates that this propensity is present in many individuals given the right conditions. Growing evidence suggests events in very early life, even before birth, may play an important role. There is a relatively urgent need to identify these factors and design preventive strategies in early life before allergic immune responses are established.
Very recently the hepatitis alphabet consisting of hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G virus has been supplemented by two new DNA viruses, called TT virus and SEN virus. It is well known that hepatitis A and E do not cause chronic hepatitis and hepatitis G and TT viruses are most likely “innocent bystanders” which are vertically transmittable but do not induce liver damage.
The essential elements in management of the constipated child are: an ability to take note of important factors in the clinical history, a good relationship between the physician and the child-family unit so as ensure their compliance with the treatment proposed, lots of patience from both sides with repeated guarantees that the situation will gradually improve, and tolerance to eventual relapses.