Regurgitation is a frequent event during the first year of life and tends to resolve spontaneously. After possible gastrooesophageal reflux has been ruled out, it is important that parents are reassured and advised on how to reduce the severity of the symptom.
Scientific information overwhelmingly shows that severe malnutrition seriously affects mental development. Only two questions are discussed here: are lesions anatomic or functional, and could an adequate diet help to retrieve what is already lost? Recent data show that the severity of brain lesions depends on the age at which severe malnutrition occurs, and can vary from loss of brain cells to a reduction in the number of neuron connections. In spite of the capacity of the human brain to recover from severe anatomic lesions, it is possible that damage cannot be corrected.
Systemic infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), especially meningitis, have been reported in many countries including some in Asia. Meningitis caused by this pathogen is a common and serious disease for which there are now nationally- and WHO-certified vaccines. These Hib conjugate vaccines, now recommended for universal use in all infants in the United States, Canada, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, parts of Germany, France and Switzerland, are administered along with DTP in infants and young children and have been shown to be safe and highly effective.