For pregnant women, diet is of extra importance because the mother is nourishing the fetus through her own body. Although this is an entirely normal physiological process, it does subject the body to special strain. The nutrients needed for the fetus must be furnished in the mother’s food; they may be drawn to some extent from her own tissues, but with the result that the mother is depleted and the infant is not adequately nourished.
Most episodes of diarrhea last only a few days but some children have episodes which continue longer. If the diarrhea lasts 14 days or more it is called persistent. Although nothing special happens on day 14, these episodes of longer duration are associated with a worse nutritional outcome and a higher risk of death, especially when they are associated with malnutrition.
In both the developed and developing world, maintenance of the cold chain is essential to ensure a successful immunisation programme. Vaccines must be stored at the temperatures recommended by manufacturers in order to maintain their potency. Where vaccine failures have occurred, improper vaccine storage has been implicated.