Considerable confusion surrounds the precise
morphology and development of human cardiac
malformations. But progress has been made recently
in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying
congenital heart diseases through new insights
in molecular genetics .
The past few years have seen rapid developments
in the understanding and treatment of cardiac
arrhythmias in children.
Although structural abnormalities of the heart and
great vessels are fairly common congenital abnormalities,
accounting for approximately 8 out of
1000 live newborns , foetal echocardiography,
Paediatric cardiology is a sophisticated highly
technical discipline in industrialized countries. It
deals mainly with congenital malformations that
are often diagnosed in the foetus and treated in the
Cardiology is in a new phase of development. Conceptions of the function of cardiac muscle, in particular,
are undergoing radical transformation. Current advances in molecular biology are the principal
force behind this transformation and are leading to increasingly sophisticated therapies.