CMA is mostly a disease of infancy. It remains unclear whether the prevalence of CMA is increasing, although some data suggest that. The major cow's milk allergens belong to the casein and whey proteins. Knowing the nutrient composition of foods and beverage consumed is the utmost importance. If a dietary inadequacy is identified, parental education should be conducted but so far avoidance of CM is the main current treatment and studies have raised concerns about nutritional deficiencies in children following avoidance diets.