The origins of adult health and well-being stem from genetic-environmental interactions that begin in the first 1000 days (conception through 24 months). Children with adequate nutrition and responsive caregiving have the best chances of thriving. Even in the face of biological or environmental threats, adequate nutrition and responsive caregiving can provide protection. In contrast, the lack of adequate nutrition and responsive caregiving can undermine children’s individual potential, and the potential of entire societies.This presentation reviews the association among nutrition, growth, and brain development among children in low and middle-income countries where the threat of nutritional deprivation is most severe. The presentation will review global trends in nutritional deprivation with attention to intervention that have been effective in attenuating the negative effects on children’s growth and development.