Maureen Black’s presentation explains that with a healthy start in life, infants are on a trajectory towards healthy development into adolescence, prepared for economic productivity. However, when disparities develop in the first 1000 days, there is an increased risk of chronic health problems in later life. Today, 249 million children under age five (43% of the world’s children) are not meeting their developmental potential and are at increased risk of non-communicable diseases, poor academic performance and low human capital. Maureen Black notes that once infants get off track, it is hard to catch up. Children need nurturing and responsive care, including good nutrition, health care, security & safety and early learning opportunities.