Maternal malnutrition is a risk factor for the next generation: in some developed and emerging countries more than 50% of young women are now overweighed (BMI >25-30) or obese (BMI (>30). Their children have a higher risk to become obese later in life. On the other hand, more than 10% of the global female population (childbearing age) is undernourished (BMI<18.5), which is a risk factor for the offspring generation. Maternal malnutrition can result in unfavorable (epigenetic) programming of fetal genes which has lifelong consequences. Childhood obesity and under-nutrition frequently have their origins in the fetal period. There is a need to intervene early, ideally before or during pregnancy.