Malnutrition during the first years of life has immediate adverse health consequences and impairs long-term health and capacities. Children born small and those who become undernourished in early life are at higher risk of dying and are more susceptible to illness. Poor linear growth – stunting is associated with several physical and cognitive consequences and affects over 150 million children worldwide, one third of whom live in India. Over 50 million children are wasted, half of whom live in South Asia, yet 5.4 million of the world’s 38.3 million overweight or obese children also live in South Asia. In this presentation, Lynnette Neufeld explores trends in prevalence, progress and determinants of malnutrition in infancy and young childhood.