Growth failure and associated poor nutrition are associated with poor cognitive outcomes in preterm infants. In this presentation, Dr Embleton examines catch up growth and its association with metabolic and cognitive outcomes in adolescents who were born preterm. Slow growth in utero may not cause later metabolic harm unless a period of accelerated postnatal growth followed. While growth may be an important indicator of later outcomes, it is not the mechanism linking early nutrition and later metabolic or cognitive outcomes. Rapid earlier linear growth may be associated with a decreased risk of low IQ, but increases the risk of overweight and obesity. The Newcastle Preterm Birth Growth study, which involved 247 preterm infants, as well as its follow- up study (n=153) with the same cohort conducted when the subjects were aged 8–12 years, were described. Finally,Dr Embleton shares some personal practice points on the care of preterm infants.