Nutrition Publication

NNIW16 - Vitamins and Minerals in Pregnancy and Lactation

Editor(s): H. Berger. vol. 16

Related Articles

Vitamin K and the Breast-Fed Infant

Author(s): S.J. Fomon

Chemical methods for determining concentrations of vitamin K in milkand other body fluids have been developed and improved during the past10 to 15 years.

Vitamin Ki Content of Human Milk in Various Maternal Nutritional States

Author(s): K. Sawada, Y. Hanawa

Vitamin Ki was measured in human milk samples from 43 mothers at 1month after delivery by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)using a fluorescent detector.

Vitamins and Minerals in Pregnancy and Lactation

Author(s): H. Berger

Vitamin And Mineral Requirements Of Pregnant And Lactating Women

Author(s): W. Kttbler

The determination of individual requirements of essential nutrients inhealthy persons is a time-consuming and difficult process.

Preventative Effects of Vitamins and Minerals on Early Abortion

Author(s): S. Roller

In a collective prospective epidemiological study on 13,643 pregnanciesfrom 1963 to 1975, an attempt was made to explore all accessible factors ofpossible influence on the course of pregnancy and child development.

P-Carotene Transfer into Colostrum in Cows: Evidence of Temporary Increase in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptors in Mammary Gland during Formation of Colostrum

Author(s): F.J. Schweigert

In cattle, owing to the type of placentation, the transfer of immunoglobulinsand other substances from dam to calf via colostrum is of the utmostimportance to the health of the newborn.

Vitamin and Mineral Status of Pregnant Women and Newborns in Some Groups of the Spanish Population

Author(s): G. Varela, O. Moreiras-Varela, M.-P. Navarro, R. M. Ortega

For some time we have been studying the nutritional status of the Spanishpopulation, particularly that of some vulnerable groups, such as pregnantwomen and newborns.

Vitamin E Nutriture of Newborns and Infants in Brazil

Author(s): I.D. Desai, F.E. Martinez, J.E. Dutra de Oliveira

During the past nine years, several investigations have been carried outto evaluate the amount of vitamin E in the nutrition of newborns and infantsduring early life.

Vitamin Status in Early Infancy

Author(s): J.S. Vobecky, J. Vobecky

It is well known that in infancy the requirements for vitamins are relativelyhigh and that infants are also more likely to be at risk of vitamin deficiencythan adults.

Trace Element Supply in Young, Healthy Infants as Related to Trace Element Content of Diet

Author(s): H.B. Von Stockhausen, U. Rosick, V.E. Negretti de Bratter, P. Bratter

The supplies of essential as well as some nonessential trace elements ininfants during their first 3 months after birth have been examined in a prospectivenutritional study.

Vitamin E Status in Pregnancy and Newborn Infants with Respect to Red Blood Cell Tocopherol

Author(s): M. Mino

Although the assessment of human vitamin E status has, from a clinicalstandpoint, generally relied on serum or plasma tocopherol concentrations,this study deals with erythrocyte [red blood cell (RBC)] tocopherolconcentrations.

Significance of Cord Blood Values for the Newborn

Author(s): H. Berger

Pediatricians are only too well aware of the clinical and theoretical implicationsof avitaminosis in children, especially in infants.

Thiamine Status in Primigravidas and in Cord Blood

Author(s): T. Vichai, L. Nusiri

Thiamine status was assessed in the blood and cord blood of 43 primigravidasattending Ramathibodi Hospital at 6 to 12 hr before delivery (day0) and at days 2, 4, and 42 after delivery.

Vitamin and Mineral Status in Healthy Pregnant Women

Author(s): H. Van den Berg

Among the many maternal and environmental factors influencing fetalgrowth and development, diet and nutritional status occupy an importantplace.

Vitamin Status in Women During Pregnancy

Author(s): J.S. Vobecky, J. Vobecky

In a longitudinal study on nutritional profiles and their relation to pregnancyoutcome, we examined two particular aspects.

A Nutritional Study Involving Groups of Pregnant Women in Umbria, Italy: Preliminary Results

Author(s): A. Alberti-Fidanza

We report some preliminary results of a longitudinal study on the nutritionalstatus of pregnant and lactating women and newborns.

Iron Balance in Pregnancy

Author(s): L. Hallberg

The only period of life in which daily iron requirements per unit of bodyweightattain magnitudes approaching those of pregnancy is from the sixthto the twelfth month of infancy.

Aluminum in Infant Formulas and in Breast Milk

Author(s): M. Heil, I. Steffan, F. Haschke, H. Vanura

Aluminum (Al) is considered a toxic trace element. In 1985, Freundlichet al. (1) expressed concern that Al may accumulate in the brain of younginfants with renal insufficiency.

Maternal Nutrition: Breast Milk Yield and Composition (A Longitudinal Study in Turkey)

Author(s): O. Koksal

Pregnant mothers living in the Ankara-f ubuk district were followedfrom the third month of pregnancy to 6 months after delivery between 1983and 1986.

Rickets in Breast-Fed and Artificially Fed Infants

Author(s): J.M. Pettifor

Rickets is by definition a disorder of growing bones. The disease is characterized by disturbances in calcium and/or phosphorus homeostasis.

Rickets in Breast-Fed Very Low Birthweight Infants

Author(s): M. Lindroth

We recently completed a study on the influence of extra phosphorus (P)and calcium (Ca) on 40 very low birthweight (VLBW) infants below 1.5 kg.

Osteocalcin in Maternal, Neonatal, and Cord Blood

Author(s): C. Panero, M. Cecchettin, G. Mainardi, V. Sorice, A. Granelli, B. Tarquini

Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA) results from the posttranslationalcarboxylation of glutamic acid.

Serum Calcium and Magnesium Status in Women with Leg Cramps during Pregnancy

Author(s): M. Hammar, G. Berg

Up to 30% of pregnant women have been reported to suffer from legcramps, usually during the night or early hours (1,2).

Vitamin D Status of Breast-Fed Infants and Their Mothers

Author(s): J.K. Visakorpi, M. Ala-Houhala

We studied the relation of the vitamin D status between mothers and theirbreast-fed infants by measuring serum and milk 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25-(OH)D].

Evaluation of Antenatal and Perinatal Vitamin C Status in Pregnancies Threatened with Prematurity

Author(s): S.C. Sharma

Although the cause of prematurity is often difficult to ascertain, manyconditions can predispose the pregnant woman to preterm labor.

Maternal Nutrition in Smail-For-Dates Babies

Author(s): C.J. Richards

The Welsh Rhymney Valley, which has a homogeneous society with manydiverse medical problems, shows a high incidence in small-for-dates (SFD)babies.

Importance of Adequate Folate Nutrition in Embryonic and Early Fetal Development

Author(s): C.J. Schorah

Concern over nutrition in industrial countries stems predominantly fromproblems associated with excessive intake.

Neural Tube Defects and Vitamin Prophylaxis

Author(s): P. Lenehan, D. MacDonald, P. Kirke

In the early 1980s, two studies (1,2) suggested that a reduction in the prevalence at birth of neural tube defects could be achieved in mothers givenpericonceptional multivitamin and/or folic acid supplementation.

Serum Folate Levels in Pregnancies Associated with Neural Tube Defects

Author(s): P.N. Kirke, A.M. Molloy, X.I. Hillary, D.G. Weir, J.M. Scott

Serum folate levels in early pregnancy in 32 women whose pregnanciesresulted in babies affected by neural tube defects (NTD) (anencephalus andspina bifida) were compared with values from a random sample of 395 womenwith normal pregnancies acting as controls.

Vitamin E Supplementation and Periventricular Hemorrhage in very Preterm Babies

Author(s): M.L. Chiswick, S. Sinha, J. Davies, N. Toner

Plasma vitamin levels in newborn babies are low compared with olderinfants, children, and adults (1-3).

Oral Vitamin E Supplementation in Small Premature Babies

Author(s): P.W. Nars

Vitamin E as an antioxidant might be of potential benefit for the smallpremature baby in countering hemolysis, retrolental fibroplasia, and bronchopulmonarydysplasia.

Early Trial on the Prevention of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Premature Infants by Tocopherol (Vitamin E)

Author(s): A. Minkowski

In the 1950s, I undertook a study of the fragility of the small vessels ofthe skin in premature infants and its possible association with the incidenceof intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).

Physiopathology of Iodine Nutrition during Pregnancy, Lactation, and Early Postnatal Life

Author(s): F. Delange, P. Bourdoux, J.P. Chanoine, A.M. Ermans

Iodine is an essential trace element, the only confirmed role of which isthe synthesis of thyroid hormones (1).

Fetal and Neonatal Development in Relation to Maternal Trace Element Nutrition: Manganese, Zinc, and Copper

Author(s): L.S. Hurley, C.L. Keen

Certain elements are found in animal tissues and fluids in very smallamounts.

Vitamins and Minerals in Pregnancy and Lactation: An Introduction

Author(s): A. Ballabriga

The determination of the nutritional requirements of the developing fetusand the newborn is a very complex problem, given that the optimum rateof growth has not been established with certainty.

Vitamin C, Folate, and Biotin Nutrition during Prolonged Lactation

Author(s): L. Salmenpera, A. Siimes, J. Perheentupa

An increasing trend toward prolonged breast-feeding has been observedin many industrialized countries.

Vitamin Status and Supplementation of Rural Gambian Women

Author(s): C.J. Bates

Ongoing studies by the Dunn Nutrition Laboratory in a rural farming regionof The Gambia in West Africa have included measurements of vitaminstatus and the effects of vitamin (and food) supplements in deficiency, especiallyon pregnant and lactating women and their infants.

Copper and Zinc Requirements for Extremely Low Birthweight Infants

Author(s): H.L. Halliday, D. McMaster

Controversy exists over the precise requirement for trace elements inpreterm infants (1). Serum copper and zinc levels were measured in 26 babiesof <30 weeks gestational age (mean 27.8 ± 1.9 weeks) at postnatal ages of11 to 111 days (median, 49 days).

A Collaborative Study On Vitamins, Minerals, And Trace Elements In Breast Milk

Author(s): E.M. DeMaeyer

In 1974 the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a multinationalstudy on breast-feeding following recommendations made earlier by the ThirteenthInternational Congress of Paediatrics.

131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in Austrian Milk

Author(s): F. Haschke, B. Pietschnig, V. Karg

Austria was among those countries having the highest depositions of radioactivematerials following the Chernobyl disaster on April 26,1986. Dosesfrom ingestion arise mainly from 1311,134Cs, and 137Cs.

Serum Zinc, Copper, And Selenium Concentrations In Healthy Mothers During Pregnancy, Puerperium, And Lactation: A Longitudinal Study

Author(s): P. Anttila, S. Salmela, J. Lehto, O. Simell

Zinc deficiency is clearly teratogenic in animals (1). The catabolism ofmaternal tissues during pregnancy, however, seems to protect the fetus fromthe teratogenic effects of hypozincemia (2).

Effect of Fetal Sex and Maternal Smoking on Cord Blood Glutathione Peroxidase Activities

Author(s): H.L. Halliday, M. Bannon, D. McMaster

Glutathione peroxidase is a selenium-based enzyme, the main function ofwhich is the catalysis of chemical reactions that detoxify peroxides andprevent damage to cell membranes.

Vitamin Concentration in Term Milk of European Mothers

Author(s): L. Dostalova, L. Salmenpera, V. Vaclavinkova, P. Heinz-Erian, W. Schiiep

It was inevitable that the resurgence of breast-feeding in recent yearsshould result in more attention being focused on breast milk itself.

Dietary Intake of Vitamin B6 Glycoside by Lactating Women and Its Effect on Milk Vitamin B6 and Infant Vitamin B6 Status

Author(s): R.D. Reynolds, J.E. Leklem, S. Acharya, P.B. Mose

Duplicate 24-hr dietary composites were collected from 26 lactating vegetarianwomen living in villages surrounding Kathmandu, Nepal and wereanalyzed for both total vitamin B6 content and vitamin B6 glycoside contentby a modified microbiological growth assay.

Vitamin and Mineral Composition of Preterm Human Milk: Implications for the Nutritional Management of the Preterm Infant

Author(s): A. Kirksey, A. Rahmanifar

Optimal nutritional management of preterm (PT) infants, particularly thoseless than 1,500 g birthweight, is believed to be critical to their growth, survival,and ultimate well-being;

Vitamin C-Dependent Hypertyrosinemia in Small Premature Babies: Diagnosis through Routine Metabolic Screening in Urine

Author(s): P. W. Nars, H. Wick

High-protein feeding of newborns frequently produces transient elevationsof tyrosin in plasma.

Zinc Balance in Premature Infants: Providing the Minimal Dietary Zinc Requirement

Author(s): I. Matsuda, A. Higashi, T. Ikeda, K. Iribe

A zinc balance study was conducted on low-birthweight infants (670-2,430g) fed human breast milk (the mother's or pooled) or formula (group 1, n =17) and others fed in the same manner but with zinc supplementation (group2, n = 19).

Vitamin C Supplementation Increases Low Plasma Vitamin C Levels of Premature Infants Fed Human Milk

Author(s): K. Heinonen, I. Mononen, and T. Mononen

To evaluate the vitamin C nutritional status of premature infants, vitaminC concentrations were measured in seven neonates born before 32 weeksgestation and in 13 premature infants born at or after 32 weeks.

Phosphorus Depletion in very Low Birthweight Infants on Long-Term Total Parenteral Nutrition

Author(s): G. Briassoulis, S. Photopoulos, M. Davakis, M. Xanthou

Thirty infants with birthweights below 1,500 g who required total parenteralnutrition (TPN) from birth were given one of two regimens differingonly in their phosphate content.

Quantitation of Trans- Vitamin Ki in Small Serum Samples: A Study Emphasizing Vitamin Ki Status at Delivery and ater Birth, Related to Feeding Conditions

Author(s): P.M.M. Van Haard, A.L.J. M. Pietersma-de-Bruyn

Despite increasing interest in vitamin Ki, very few analytical techniqueshave been described for this substance.

Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin Ki and Pivka-Ii in Bottle-Fed and Breast-Fed Infants with and without Vitamin K Prophylaxis at Birth

Author(s): J. Widdershoven, L. Monnens, W. Lambert, A. de Leenheer, K. Motohara, M. Matsuda

Plasma vitamin Ki and PIVKA-II (prothrombin induced by vitamin Kabsence), were measured simultaneously in three groups of infants

Acarboxy Prothrombin in Dried Blood Spots as a Marker for Vitamin K Deficiency in Young Infants

Author(s): K. Motohara, I. Matsuda

We developed a mass-monitoring system for noncarboxylated prothrombin,which is a precursor of active prothrombin and converted to the activeform by vitamin K and carboxylase, as an indicator of vitamin K deficiencyin infants around 1 month of age.

Vitamin Ki Status, Its Clinical Implication, and Oral Prophylaxis in Breast-Fed Thai Infants

Author(s): A. Tejavej

Breast milk is best for infant feeding; however, the vitamin Ki content ofhuman milk is less than one-tenth that of formula milk (1).

Vitamin Ki in Fetus and Human Milk

Author(s): L. Sann, M. Guillaumond, B. Fournier, M. Leclercq, and M. Bourgeay-Causse

Using high-performance liquid hematography for determination of serumvitamin Ki concentration, we carried out a series of investigations to determinesome factors involved in possible vitamin K deficiency in the newborninfant.

Iron in Infant Nutrition

Author(s): M.A. Siimes

Fetal iron is highly dependent on bodyweight (1). Total body iron, primarilyin blood hemoglobin and tissue, increases linearly with bodyweight.

Does Iron Supplementation Reduce Zinc Bioavailability in Preterm Infants?

Author(s): H.L. Halliday, D. McMaster

It has recently been suggested that infant formulas containing high concentrationsof iron may reduce zinc bioavailability (1).

Impact of Vitamin a Deficiency on Infant and Childhood Mortality

Author(s): A. Sommer, I. Tarwotjo, K.P. West

Clinical observations from the nineteenth century and early twentieth indicatedthat children with keratomalacia were severely vitamin A deficient,ill, malnourished, and suffered an extremely high mortality (1,2).

Xerophthalmia and Severe Protein Energy Malnutrition

Author(s): S. Pudjiadi

Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and Vitamin A deficiency are stillmajor nutritional problems in Indonesia. A national survey on xerophthalmia(1976-1979) showed that the prevalence of Bitot's spots was 1% and xerosis

Safety of Vitamin and Mineral Supplements for Mother and Child

Author(s): R.E. Olson

The nutritional concerns for women in pregnancy and lactation involvethe supply of a range of nutrients adequate to meet the mother's healthrequirements and ensure the normal development of the child.

Safety of Vitamin and Mineral Supplements for Mother and Child, 24 September 1986, in Innsbruck

Author(s): D. Hornig

Dr. Olson's statements, especially on those concerning the side effectsattributed to vitamin C, require comment, since some are based on unverified,even anecdotal, reports.

Final Comments

Author(s): J. Rey

"The determination of nutritional requirements during pregnancy andnursing is a complex task because the optimum growth rate of the fetus andof the newborn baby is not known for sure."

Maternal Nutrition and Pregnancy Outcome

Author(s): R. Buzina

The study explored some of the mechanisms by which maternalnutrition may affect fetal growth using data collected in a largeprospective study of pregnancy. Birth weights of full-term infantsincreased with maternal pregnancy weight gains when mothers wereunderweight before pregnancy. This relationship disappeared asmothers' pregravid body weights increased so that, the most overweightmothers had neonates weighing about 3600 g on the mean,irrespective of the size of maternal pregnancy weight gains. Motherswho developed edema in their hands and faces during pregnancyhad 1—2% heavier new-borns than non-edematous mothers.