Nutrition Publication

NNIW08 - Trace Elements in Nutrition of Children

Editor(s): R.K. Chandra. vol. 08

Related Articles

Clinical Deficiencies: When to Suspect there is a Problem

Author(s): K.M. Hambidge

Despite notable recent advances in our appreciation of the role of trace elementsin human nutrition and disease, clinical detection of trace-element-deficiency statesusually remains extraordinarily difficult.

Diagnostic Approaches to Trace Element Deficiencies

Author(s): A.S. Prasad

Although several trace elements, such as iron, copper, zinc, chromium, selenium,manganese, cobalt, iodine, and fluorine, are considered to be essential for humanhealth, only a few have clinical relevance.

Bioavailability of and Interactions Among Trace Elements

Author(s): B.L. O'Dell

With the advent of present-day tools and techniques of analysis, it is possibleand practical to measure accurately the essential trace element content of humanfoods.

Isotopic Methods in the Study of Mineral Metabolism of Infants with Special Reference to Stable Isotopes

Author(s): M. Janghorbani, V.R. Young, R.A. Ehrenkranz

Of the 90 naturally occurring chemical elements, 26 have been suggested asessential for animal life (1). In addition to these, a number are of toxicologicalimportance (e.g., Pb), and some others are of interest because of their specialproperties (e.g., as components of therapeutic agents).

Trace Element Modulation of Immune Responses and Susceptibility to Infection

Author(s): R.K. Chandra, S. Puri

Nutritional regulation of host resistance and susceptibility to infection has beensuspected by generations of clinicians and investigators. It is only recently, however,that the critical evidence supporting the role of dietary factors in various aspectsof immune responses has been collected and analyzed (1,2).

Metabolism and Metabolic Effects of Trace Elements

Author(s): W. Mertz

Modern trace element research is concerned at present with 17 elements, theessentiality of which has either been established or is suspected. Even when weconcentrate on the seven or eight elements for which problems of deficiency orexcessive exposure are known to occur in man, the multitude of their individualmetabolic pathways, requirements, and interactions with the environment representsa very large compilation of data that is essential for understanding the nutritionalsituation but extremely difficult to comprehend.

Trace Elements in Prenatal and Neonatal Development: Zinc and Manganese

Author(s): L.S. Hurley

A comprehensive review of the role of all trace elements in fetal and neonataldevelopment here is possible at only the most superficial level. Therefore two traceelements, zinc and manganese, are used to exemplify the concepts involved.

Trace Elements and Human Pregnancy and Lactation

Author(s): R.J. Aggett

This chapter considers the trace elements which have been studied most extensivelyin pregnancy and lactation (i.e., zinc, copper, selenium, and chromium) butexcludes iron.

Trace Elements in Human Milk and Infant Formulas

Author(s): M.F. Picciano

Infancy is a stage in the life cycle characterized by several unique features. Withthe possible exception of the rate in utero, growth during infancy far exceeds thatexperienced throughout life.

Meeting Zinc, Copper, and Manganese Requirements in the Parenterally Fed Preterm and Full-Term Infant

Author(s): S.H. Zlotkin

Four groups of infants and children have been identified as being at risk ofdeveloping acute trace metal deficiency: (a) children with chronic diarrhea (1); (b)children and infants on total parenteral nutrition (2); (c) infants with inborn errorsof metabolism; and (d) premature infants (3).

Relationship of Trace Element Deficiencies to Malnutrition

Author(s): M.H.N. Golden, B.E. Golden, F.I. Bennett

Perusal of most medical textbooks shows that childhood malnutrition in thetropics has been consistently ascribed to feeding a diet deficient in either proteinor energy, or some combination of the two. Kwashiorkor is said to result from"pure" protein deficiency, whereas marasmus arises from protein and energy deficiency.,

Zinc Status, Body Composition, and Maturation in Aboriginal Boys

Author(s): D.B. Cheek, J. Wishart, G. Phillipou, J. Field, R.Spargo

Anthropologists believe that the aboriginal people migrated to Australia some40,000 to 50,000 years ago. It is not known from whence they came, but they dohave variant forms of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in their red blood cells (1) afinding discovered only in certain areas of northwest India.

Pediatric Exposures to Lead, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Methyl Mercury

Author(s): J.J. Chisolm

Lead, arsenic, cadmium, and methyl mercury are nonessential and potentiallyhighly toxic metals. They may be found in minute and variable but measurableamounts in food, drinking water, and/or ambient air.

Ultra Trace Elements and Selenium

Author(s): A.T. Diplock

During the past decade there has been a large upsurge in interest in nutritionallyessential trace elements. In the clinical field the recognition that deficiency canoccur in human subjects in many practical dietary situations has been of crucialimportance from the public health viewpoint worldwide.

Keshan Disease: an Endemic Selenium- Related Deficiency Disease

Author(s): G.Q. Yang

Keshan disease is an endemic cardiomyopathy which was first observed in KeshanCounty, Heilonjiang Province, Northeast China. It has a very high case-fatalityrate, more than 80% in the past and around 30% at present. The disease may beacute, subacute, chronic, or insidious.

Physiopathology of Iodine Nutrition

Author(s): F. Delange

Iodine is an essential trace element whose only confirmed function concerns theformation of thyroid hormones. Our knowledge of the disorders caused by deficienciesin the dietary supply of many trace elements has markedly increased onlyduring the last decade. Iodine is one exception to this rule.