Despite notable recent advances in our appreciation of the role of trace elementsin human nutrition and disease, clinical detection of trace-element-deficiency statesusually remains extraordinarily difficult.
Diagnostic Approaches to Trace Element Deficiencies
Although several trace elements, such as iron, copper, zinc, chromium, selenium,manganese, cobalt, iodine, and fluorine, are considered to be essential for humanhealth, only a few have clinical relevance.
Bioavailability of and Interactions Among Trace Elements
Of the 90 naturally occurring chemical elements, 26 have been suggested asessential for animal life (1). In addition to these, a number are of toxicologicalimportance (e.g., Pb), and some others are of interest because of their specialproperties (e.g., as components of therapeutic agents).
Trace Element Modulation of Immune Responses and Susceptibility to Infection
Nutritional regulation of host resistance and susceptibility to infection has beensuspected by generations of clinicians and investigators. It is only recently, however,that the critical evidence supporting the role of dietary factors in various aspectsof immune responses has been collected and analyzed (1,2).
Metabolism and Metabolic Effects of Trace Elements
Modern trace element research is concerned at present with 17 elements, theessentiality of which has either been established or is suspected. Even when weconcentrate on the seven or eight elements for which problems of deficiency orexcessive exposure are known to occur in man, the multitude of their individualmetabolic pathways, requirements, and interactions with the environment representsa very large compilation of data that is essential for understanding the nutritionalsituation but extremely difficult to comprehend.
Trace Elements in Prenatal and Neonatal Development: Zinc and Manganese
A comprehensive review of the role of all trace elements in fetal and neonataldevelopment here is possible at only the most superficial level. Therefore two traceelements, zinc and manganese, are used to exemplify the concepts involved.
Four groups of infants and children have been identified as being at risk ofdeveloping acute trace metal deficiency: (a) children with chronic diarrhea (1); (b)children and infants on total parenteral nutrition (2); (c) infants with inborn errorsof metabolism; and (d) premature infants (3).
Relationship of Trace Element Deficiencies to Malnutrition
Author(s): M.H.N. Golden, B.E. Golden, F.I. Bennett
Perusal of most medical textbooks shows that childhood malnutrition in thetropics has been consistently ascribed to feeding a diet deficient in either proteinor energy, or some combination of the two. Kwashiorkor is said to result from"pure" protein deficiency, whereas marasmus arises from protein and energy deficiency.,
Zinc Status, Body Composition, and Maturation in Aboriginal Boys
Author(s): D.B. Cheek, J. Wishart, G. Phillipou, J. Field, R.Spargo
Anthropologists believe that the aboriginal people migrated to Australia some40,000 to 50,000 years ago. It is not known from whence they came, but they dohave variant forms of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in their red blood cells (1) afinding discovered only in certain areas of northwest India.
Pediatric Exposures to Lead, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Methyl Mercury
Lead, arsenic, cadmium, and methyl mercury are nonessential and potentiallyhighly toxic metals. They may be found in minute and variable but measurableamounts in food, drinking water, and/or ambient air.
During the past decade there has been a large upsurge in interest in nutritionallyessential trace elements. In the clinical field the recognition that deficiency canoccur in human subjects in many practical dietary situations has been of crucialimportance from the public health viewpoint worldwide.
Keshan Disease: an Endemic Selenium- Related Deficiency Disease
Keshan disease is an endemic cardiomyopathy which was first observed in KeshanCounty, Heilonjiang Province, Northeast China. It has a very high case-fatalityrate, more than 80% in the past and around 30% at present. The disease may beacute, subacute, chronic, or insidious.
Iodine is an essential trace element whose only confirmed function concerns theformation of thyroid hormones. Our knowledge of the disorders caused by deficienciesin the dietary supply of many trace elements has markedly increased onlyduring the last decade. Iodine is one exception to this rule.