Nutrition Publication

The Nest 42: Human Milk: Evolving of Nature‘s Understanding

Editor(s): J. Bruce German, S. Austin, N. Sprenger. / 42

The issue of The Nest brings together 2 important concepts, human milk oligosaccharides and peptides & proteases in human milk, and how both of them evolve in human milk:

Sean Austin and Norbert Sprenger, from Nestlé Research Center discuss how human milk oligosaccharides profile differs between individuals and evolves during the course of lactation, which suggests individual HMOs most likely play different biological roles, adapting to the growing infant's physiological needs;

Bruce German from University of California explores in his 2 articles the evolution of human milk not as simple proteins but rather a combination of proteins & proteases enzymes. He approaches topics such as how proteolysis of human milk happens and where it begins, and also implications to human milk digestion and to infant nourishment.

Related Articles

Peptides in Human Milk

Author(s): J. Bruce German

Professor Bruce German from University of California discusses in this article the complex digestion of human milk proteins into peptides and amino acids within the stomach and intestine. Many peptides from human milk are generated by endogenous enzymes within the mammary gland prior to secretion, as well as by milk’s endogenous enzymes throughout the gastrointestinal tract of the infant

Temporal Evolution of Human Milk Oligosaccharides

Author(s): S. Austin, N. Sprenger

Sean Austin and Norbert Sprenger, from Nestlé Research Center discuss how human milk oligosaccharides profile differs between individuals and evolves during the course of lactation, which suggests individual HMOs most likely play different biological roles, adapting to the growing infant’s physiological needs.

Protease Enzymes in Human Milk

Author(s): J. Bruce German

Bruce German approaches the evolution of human milk, not as simple proteins, but rather as a combination of proteins & proteases enzymes. In this article the author also discusses the implications of selective proteolysis of human milk proteins to digestion and to infant nourishment.