Nutrition Publication

NNIW21 - Rickets

Editor(s): F. Glorieux. vol. 21

Related Articles

Hereditary Pseudo-Deficiency Rickets or Vitamin D-Dependency Type I

Author(s): S. Balsan

Following the description in 1937 by Albright, Butler, and Bloomberg (1) of "ricketsresistant to vitamin D," a number of observations were published, particularlyby Van Crefeld and Arons (2), Fraser and Salter (3), and by Royer (4) which indicatedthat there was a variant of resistant rickets which differed from classical hereditaryhypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant rickets by its clinical and biological symptoms,and response to therapy.

Vitamin D-Deficiency Rickets in Saudi Arabia

Author(s): A-W.T.H. Elidrissy

Rickets was primarily a disease of temperate countries but after a long period oferadication it has reappeared among the immigrants in these countries (1-5).

Rickets in India

Author(s): O. Prakash Ghai, P.B. Koul

India is the seventh largest country in the world with great diversity in its topography,climate, ecology, and demographic characteristics. Its land mass falls between7° and 37° of latitude South.

Rickets in China

Author(s): H. Zhou

China is a developing country located in the temperate zone. Its mainland extendsapproximately from 20° to 53° northern latitude. In 1988 China had a large populationof 1.08 billion, with almost 300 million children under the age of 14. About 20 millioninfants are born each year.

Photosynthesis, Metabolism, and Biologic Actions of Vitamin D

Author(s): M.F. Holick

Vitamin D is a most interesting seco-sterol that has its origin dating back at least0.5 billion years ago when it was produced in ocean-dwelling plankton (1).

Physiology of Vitamin D and Calcium Homeostasis

Author(s): D.R. Fraser

In the past 20 years a voluminous literature has been written on the role of vitaminD in calcium homeostasis. This outpouring of experimental findings stemmed fromthe discovery that vitamin D was the precursor of a steroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD [1,25(OH)2D], which affects calcium transport across cell membranes(1-4).

Homeostasis of Inorganic Phosphate and the Kidney

Author(s): J-Ph. Bonjour, J. Caverzasio, R. Rizzoli

In most mammalian species, 80% to 90% of body phosphate is present in bonemineral as a major component of hydroxyapatite. The rest is in soft tissue, bloodcells, and in the extracellular fluid.

Parathyroid Hormone and Its Role in the Pathophysiology of the Common Forms of Rickets and Osteomalacia

Author(s): C.D. Arnaud

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), an 84 amino acid, linear polypeptide with a molecularweight of 9500, is the principal regulator of the concentration of ionic calcium inextracellular fluid.

Growth Plate: Histophysiology, Cell and Matrix Turnover

Author(s): R.K. Schenk, E.B. Hunziker

A sound knowledge of the basic mechanism of endochondral ossification is paramountfor understanding normal and disturbed growth.

Osteoblast Cultures: A Valuable Tool for the Study of Hypophosphatemic Vitamin D-Resistant Rickets

Author(s): B. Ecarot, F.H. Glorieux

Bone matrix formation and mineralization is a complex process which is underthe control of the osteoblasts and nearby osteoid osteocytes.

Common Vitamin D-Deficiency Rickets

Author(s): L. David

In many countries the "common" denomination given to vitamin D-deficient ricketsonly has an historical meaning as the affection has become rare.

Dietary Calcium Deficiency

Author(s): J.M. Pettifor

There has been until recently a general consensus among experts in the field ofmetabolic bone disease, that a dietary lack of calcium produces few pathologicalconsequences in man.

Osteopenia Versus Rickets In Premature Infants

Author(s): J. Senterre

Metabolic bone disease is a well recognized problem in premature infants. It hasbeen called "osteopenia, osteoporosis, hypomineralization, undermineralization, demineralization,or rickets of prematurity."

Vitamin D and Calcium Homeostasis in Pregnancy: Feto-Maternal Relationships

Author(s): Ed.E. Delvin, B.L. Salle, F.H. Glorieux

The quality of the mature skeleton reflects a long series of uninterrupted biologicalevents that have their beginning early in gestation.

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Receptors and Resistance: Implications in Rickets, Osteomalacia, and Other Conditions

Author(s): S.J. Marx

Rickets or osteomalacia may arise from a defect anywhere in the bone mineralizationpathway, which begins with the process of vitamin D activation, includesinput of minerals to the bloodstream, and ends with accumulation of mineral crystalsin osteoid.

Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets: Pathophysiology and Medical Management

Author(s): F.H. Glorieux, G. Chabot, C. Tau

Chronic hypophosphatemia is one major cause of rickets and osteomalacia in growingchildren (see Preface of this volume).

Vitamin D-Deficiency Rickets in Northern Europe and Libya

Author(s): T. Markestad, A.Y. Elzouki

Rickets has probably been a common disease entity since ancient history (1). Dataregarding prevalence of the condition are only available, however, since the latterhalf of the nineteenth century when epidemic proportions were noted in industrializedcountries, including Norway.

Is Vitamin D-Deficiency Rickets a Public Health Problem in France and Algeria?

Author(s): M. Garabedian, H. Ben-Mekhbi

Introduction of vitamin D to dried or evaporated milk, administration of cod-liveroil supplements, and health education at school, in maternity hospitals and by generalpractitioners, greatly reduced the prevalence of vitamin D-deficiency rickets in theUnited States after 1938 (1) and in Great Britain after 1945 (2).

Nutritional Rickets in Argentina

Author(s): M.B. Oliveri, M. Ladizesky, A. Sotelo, S. Griffo, G. Ballesteros, C.A. Mautalen

The prevalence of nutritional rickets in different populations depends on theirgeographical situation, skin pigmentation, and socioeconomic level.

Prevention of Rickets

Author(s): L. Paunier

Although it has been known for over 40 years that vitamin D is essential for maintenanceof normal calcium and phosphorus metabolism in human beings, the dailyamount of vitamin D needed by an infant for protection from rickets is still far frombeing precisely established.