Nutrition Publication

NNIW39 - Placental Function And Fetal Nutrition

Editor(s): F. Battaglia. vol. 39

Related Articles

Techniques for The Study of Placental Transport—Transfer of Chloride As an Example

Author(s): R.D.H. Boyd, I.M. Doughty, J. Glazier, S. Greenwood, C.P. Sibley

"It is therefore quite futile to inject some substance . . . into the maternal circulation ofthe rat at the end of pregnancy, and then, if it goes through into the foetal circulation,to report that 'the placenta is permeable to' whatever it was that was injected.

Placental Delivery of Amino Acids. Utilization and Production Vs. Transport

Author(s): G. Meschia

Early studies of amino acid transport across the ovine placenta suggested thatamino acids taken up by the placenta from the maternal circulation are delivered tothe fetus with no major loss (placental amino acid utilization) or addition (placentalamino acid production) (1).

Molecular Mechanisms of Placental Development

Author(s): M.J. Soares

The placenta possesses features allowing it to modify the maternal reproductivetract into a hospitable and nutritive environment for the developing embryo andfetus. These fundamental tasks are accomplished through the differentiation of thetrophoblast cell lineage.

Fetal Liver and The Placenta: An Interactive System

Author(s): F.C. Battaglia

Fetal physiologists have centered their attention on the endocrine system whenconsidering the potential interaction of one fetal organ with another or one fetalorgan with the placenta.

The Endocrine Function of The Placenta: Interactions Between Trophic Peptides and Hormones

Author(s): L. Cedard

The placenta is classically considered to be a source of hormones that play animportant role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Because of itshemochorial structure, the human placenta produces hormones and easily secretesthem into the maternal circulation.

The Endocrine Function of the Placenta: Human Placental Growth Hormone Variant

Author(s): F. Talamantes

The placenta of mammals is a very adaptable organ that accomplishes manycritical functions necessary for the well-being of the host and developing fetus. Forexample, the placenta serves as an attachment site to secure the developing fetus tothe uterus, and it transports nutrients from the maternal to the fetal compartment.

Development of Hormone Receptors Within the Fetus

Author(s): R.V. Anthony, M.D. Fanning, L.C. Richter

Many factors affect the rate of fetal growth and development in addition to overallfetal well-being. In eutherian mammals, the placenta serves as the primary mediatorand modulator of those factors that ultimately determine development rate.

Regulation of Gene Expression by Nutrients During the Perinatal Period

Author(s): J. Girard, S. Hauguel-de Mouzon, F. Chatelain, P. Boileau, S. Thumelin, J-P. Pegorier

The regulation of specific gene expression in response to changes of nutrition hasbecome a major focus of modern nutritional research, owing to the emergence oftechniques of molecular biology that have allowed the cloning of a number of genesinvolved in the regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

Oxygenation in Utero: Placental Determinants and Fetal Requirements

Author(s): J.A. Owens, K.L. Kind, J.S. Robinson

Oxygen is an essential substrate for life before birth; it is required to produceenergy, maintain tissues already laid down, and support accretion of new tissues.Fetal oxygen requirements are therefore ultimately determined by the rate of fetalgrowth and the factors that regulate this process.

Placental Transport in Fetal Growth Retardation

Author(s): Ed.S. Ogata, R.H. Lane, R.A. Simmons, G.J. Reid

The factors responsible for retarding fetal growth are numerous and not completelyunderstood. Although it is reasonable to assume that altered placental handling andtransport of metabolic fuels can affect fetal growth, little is known about the preciserelation between these changes and the numerous aspects of fetal growth (1).

Fetal Lipid Requirements: Implications in Fetal Growth Retardation

Author(s): J. Jumpsen, J. Van Aerde, M.T. Clandinin

The importance of lipid metabolism in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)has not been extensively studied. Although little is known of the effect of marginaldietary intakes of essential fatty acids on fetal lipid metabolism, there is evidencethat placental lipids of infants that are small for gestational age (SGA) are low in20:4 n-6 and 22:6 n-3.

Maternal Lipid Metabolism and Its Implications for Fetal Growth

Author(s): E. Herrera, M.A. Munilla

During gestation, the mother has to adapt her own metabolism to support a continuousextraction of nutrients through the placenta to sustain fetal development. Quantitatively,glucose and amino acids are the most abundant of these nutrients crossingthe placenta (1,2), and the continuous dependence of the fetus on these compoundsis well-known. However, the placenta is practically impermeable to lipids, exceptfor free fatty acids (FFA) and ketone bodies (3).

Oxygen Consumption and Protein Metabolism in the Human Fetus

Author(s): M.J. Rennie

Much of what we know about placental physiology and biochemistry has comefrom studies carried out in animals, particularly the guinea pig, rabbit, and sheep.Much less information is available concerning metabolism of the human fetus, forobvious reasons—both ethical and practical.

Nutrient Supply in Human Fetal Growth Retardation

Author(s): A.M. Marconi

Our ability to understand the physiology of the fetus in utero and the metabolicchanges associated with pregnancy has increased in the last 10 years because of thedevelopment of fetal blood sampling techniques and the application of stable isotopemethods.

Maternal Vascular Disease and Fetal Growth

Author(s): C.Romanini, H. Valensise

Maternal vascular diseases are known to influence fetal growth by reducing theavailability of nutrients through the impaired uteroplacental circulation. Intrauterinefetal growth retardation (IUGR) is related to an increased risk for perinatal morbidityand mortality.

Fetal Growth and Long-Term Consequences in Animal Models of Growth Retardation

Author(s): K. Holemans, L. Aerts, F.A. Van Assche

Fetal growth and development are primarily determined by genetic informationin the fetus, but the genetic regulation of fetal growth is influenced by various factorsthat can exert a stimulatory or inhibitory effect.

Drug Abuse

Author(s): D.M. Campbell

Substance abuse in pregnancy is generally believed to be on the increase in manyof the developed countries of the world. Pregnant women who expose themselvesto toxic substances are at risk for adverse outcome. However, it is not entirely clearto what degree any one specific substance abused may affect either the mother orthe baby during the course of pregnancy.

Effects of Maternal Smoking on Placental Structure and Function

Author(s): K.R. Page, P. Bush, D.R. Abramovich, P.J. Aggett, M. D. Burke, T.M. Mayhew

The adverse effect of maternal smoking on fetal birth weight is a well-establishedfact, but the role of the placenta in this phenomenon is not fully understood. Duringthe last 4 years, we have determined the effects of smoking on placental structureand function in Aberdeen women.