Nutrition Publication

Pediatric Nutrition in Practice

Editor(s): B.Koletzko.

There is no other time in life when the provision of appropriate nutrition is of greater importance than during infancy and childhood. During this phase of life characterized by rapid growth and development, an adequate amount and composition of substrates both in health and disease are of key importance for growth, functional outcomes such as cognition and immune response, and long-term wellbeing

Related Articles

Early Nutrition And Long Term Health

Author(s): B. Koletzko

Nutritional and metabolic factors during sensitive, limited periods of early human development have a long-term programming effect on health, well-being and performance in later age, extending into adulthood and old age. Hence, optimal nutrition during pregnancy, lactation and infancy is of particular importance.The evidence for early programming effects arise form in vitro experiments, animal models, retro- and prospective epidemiological studies, and first controlled intervention trials. With these models and experiments it is expected that obstetric and pediatrics medicine will achieve a much greater future role for prevention of long-term disease risks in the population.Thus, the important effects on health of early nutrition programming, such as understanding the protective effects of breastfeeding on later health outcomes compared to formula feeding is relevant to public health on a population basis. This justifies major investments into research and improvement of practice.

Toddlers Pre-School and School Children

Author(s): H. Przyrembel

The age range of 1 to approximately 12 yearsincludes very different phases of development.With increasing motor skills, toddlers, some ofwhom are still partly breastfed, continue to feedthemselves with an increasing variety of foods aspart of the family diet.Food preferences developedin the first year of life tend to persist but aremodified under the influence of parents, siblingsand play mates. Pre-school and school childrenincrease both the frequency and variety of socialcontacts outside the home and thereby food andmeal choices [1] .A healthy diet for children should be devisedon the basis of both scientific and practical considerations. 

Overweight and Obesity

Author(s): M. Wabitsch

Obesity develops during periods of positiveenergy balance resulting from inadequate low regular physical activity andinadequately high calorie intake. Treatment of obesity in children can beperformed on the basis of a behavioral- based training program aiming atreducing sedentary behaviors, increasing physical activity and improving energyintake. Successful dietary measures are reducing the intake of energy-densefoods, foods with added sugar, and increasing the proportion of foods with highfiber content. Eating and physical activity behavior of an individual child isstrongly influenced by environmental and social factors which also need to bechanged in order to achieve long-term success. Therefore, treatment will haveonly limited success in an environment where adequate physical activity isinhibited and the consumption of high energy food is stimulated. Furthermore,the inclusion of parents is also important for long-term success.

Gut Microbiota in Infants

Author(s): S. Salminen, M. Tang

 The microbiota of a newborn is acquired fromthe mother at birth and develops rapidly thereafter.It is initially strongly dependent on the mother’smicrobiota, mode of delivery and birth environment . The microbiota of the mother isdetermined by genetic and environmental factors.Stress and dietary habits during later pregnancyhave a significant impact on the microbiotaat delivery, thus influencing the quality andquantity of first colonizers of the newborn. Subsequently,feeding practices (formula or breastfed)and the infant’s home environment influencethe succession microbiota at the genus andspecies level, as well as species composition andnumbers of bacteria. 

Iron Deficiency and Other Nutrient Deficiencies

Author(s): N. Solomons

Irondeficiency and anemia are the most widespread human deficiencies andproduce reduced productivity and learning. Children also commonlydevelop overt deficiencies of only certain vitamins and minerals.Endemic deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc are associated withgreater infectious morbidity in children. Infant formulas, enteralfeeding and parenteral infusion with improper formulation have causeddeficiencies of vitamin E, zinc, copper, selenium, molybdenum andchromium, as well as chloride. Eating disorders, clinical illnessand iatrogenic causes are the bases of micronutrient deficiencies inclinical pediatrics. The combination of addressing the underlyingcauses and providing prudent supplementation with vitamins and/orminerals is essential to resolving micronutrient malnutrition. It istherefore important for the practitioner to recognize the signs andsymptoms and appropriate interpretation of hematological, biochemicaland functional indices of vitamin and mineral deficiencies in orderto prescribe appropriate treatment.