Nutrition Publication

NNIW03 - Nutritional Adaptation of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Newborn

Editor(s): N. Kretchmer, A. Minkowski. vol. 03

Related Articles

Successive Phases of Human Fetal Intestinal Development

Author(s): P.C. Colony

Adequate nutrition, a critical factor to the health and well being of thenewborn infant, is dependent on the digestive and absorptive capacities of theintestinal epithelial cells at birth. These cells must also function as a "barrier"to the nonspecific uptake and transport of lumenal macromolecules.

Anchoring and Biosynthesis of Small-Intestinal Sucrase-Isomaltase

Author(s): G. Semenza

The present chapter summarizes some recent and less recent work on thepositioning, anchoring and biosynthesis of the small-intestinal sucrase-isomaltase(SI) complex, which is the most abundant integral protein of the brushborder membrane; it then discusses the implications of the results as to thepossible mechanisms underlying human sucrose-isomaltose malabsorption.

Effect of Variation of Dietary Intake of Starch and Sucrose on the Activity of Sucrase and Lactase in Jejunum of Adult Rats

Author(s): O. Koldovsky, S. Bustamante, T. Goda, K. Yamada

The problem of the regulation of activity of intestinal disaccharidases, especiallylactase, has attracted the attention of researchers for many years (6,8);there are still many unresolved questions.

Fetal Forms of Enzymes of Intestinal Brush Border

Author(s): S. Auricchio

The surface membrane of the small intestine comes into contact with luminalnutrients, organisms, drugs and foreign antigens. The natural frontierbetween the body and the intestinal content is represented by the glycoproteinsof the brush border membrane, which act as receptors, carriers and hydrolyticenzymes.

Influence of Lymphocytes and of Cell - Mediated Immunity on the Epithelial Cell Kinetics in the Intestine

Author(s): A. Ferguson, A.M. Mowat, S. Strobel

Ontogeny of the intestinal immune system is relevant to infant nutritionin many ways. Not only are lymphocytes and lymphoid tissues integral componentsof the stomach, small intestine, and colon, but immune responses inthese organs also influence the nature of the commensal gut flora, conferprotective immunity against pathogenic microorganisms and parasites, andcontribute, via hypersensitivity mechanisms, to intestinal diseases, includingmalabsorption. Studies of human neonatal intestinal immunology have notbeen performed, and, indeed, clinical investigation of the gastrointestinal lymphoidapparatus in man has been confined almost exclusively to studies ofsecretory antibodies and to counts of mucosal lymphoid cells.

Protein Digestion and Absorption

Author(s): D.M. Matthews

About three-quarters of a century ago, Santayana wrote, "Those who cannotremember the past are condemned to repeat it." This somber dictum is splendidlyillustrated by the history of the study of protein digestion and absorptionover the same three-quarters of a century (12,13). This chapter begins with asummary of this history, since it provides a deeper understanding of the principlesinvolved than a mere outline of present views accompanied by an accountof the minutiae of recent advances in the field.

Noninvasive Techniques for the Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Function

Author(s): J.A. Perman

The study of gastrointestinal function during infancy has been impeded bythe invasiveness, impracticality, and imprecision of the conventional techniquesof internal medicine transposed to newborn and young infants.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Author(s): J. Barnard, H. Greene, R. Cotton

Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a well-described and extensivelyinvestigated affection of the high-risk newborn. It is a cosmopolitan disease,the clinical course of which ranges from modest abdominal distention andgastrointestinal dysfunction to a fulminant course of sepsis, disseminated intravascularcoagulation, cardiovascular collapse, and death.

Some Pathophysiologic Changes in Experimental Intrauterine Malnutrition

Author(s): A. Minkowski, C. Chanez

The two major causes (48) of intrauterine human growth retardation (IUGR)(63), which has become a major concern to neonatalogists (3,4), are a reductionin the blood flow to the fetus and maternal malnutrition.

Fetal Growth Retardation Caused by Maternal Dietary Amino Acid Imbalance

Author(s): J. Metcoff, T. Cole, P. Lunn, S. Salem

This chapter presents some preliminary experimental data which indicatethat maternal dietary amino acid imbalance affects fetal growth. As background,among approximately 1,164 mother-baby pairs studied at midpregnancy,we found that mothers who later had small babies had a pattern or"profile" of amino acids and nutrient levels in their plasma which differedfrom mothers who later had large babies (1,3) (Fig. 1).

The Use of Intravenous Fat Emulsions in Preterm Infants

Author(s): P. Sunshine , J.A. Kerner

The first intravenous fat (IVF) preparation used to any great extent in theUnited States was made from cottonseed oil and marketed under the tradenameof Lipomul®. A great deal of experience was gained with the use of thisemulsion and, in fact, an entire symposium was published reviewing the dataregarding this agent (Metabolism, 6:591-831, 1957).

Nutrient Deposit in Low-Birth-Weight Infants

Author(s): G. Putet, J. Senterre

The growth curves of a fetus in utero (4) and of a preterm infant are shownin Fig. 1. Following birth, weight is lost and there is a delay until growth isresumed. Afterwards, there is usually little difference between the slope of bothcurves, and it is only when there is a flattening out of the intrauterine (IU)curve that our preterm infant curve catches up with it.

Nutrition of the Low-Birth-Weight Infant

Author(s): N.C.R. Raiha

There are three major considerations affecting the quantity and quality ofprotein to be given to a low-birth-weight baby. These are (a) requirements fornormal growth and body composition, (b) development of protein and aminoacid metabolism, and (c) renal function.

Parenteral Nutrition in the Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infant

Author(s): J. Rigo, J. Senterre

In preterm infants an optimal nutritional supply must be provided earlyduring the neonatal period. Indeed, undernutrition leads to growth retardationwhich may be hazardous for brain development (18).

Modifications of Human Milk Composition During the Early Stages of Lactation

Author(s): B. Ribadeau Dumas

This chapter deals with the modifications of human milk composition duringthe early stages of lactation and the possible implications of these modificationsas far as the needs of the newborn are concerned.

Introduction of Weaning Foods into the Infant's Diet

Author(s): O. Ransome-Kuti

Weaning has been recognized as a dangerous process in many developingcountries since Ceciley Williams described kwashiorkor in 1935. The termweaning has been described as ambiguous by David Morley and should beavoided because "the following two meanings are possible: (a) It is equivalentto the French 'sevrage' i.e. cessation of breast feeding; (b) the time or periodin which solid foods or food other than milk are introduced into thebaby's diet."